Academic learning time 
  the amount of time students are successfully engaged (actively engaged in learning leads to success)
Allocated time   
amount of time teachers assign to different content areas or topics
Assessment 
 the process of gathering information about learning progress and making instructional decisions based on the information.

(e.g. homework, quizzes, samples of student work)          Required by NCLB to “measure the depth and breath of the state academic standard…”          Mechanism to ensure the intent of the standard matches the assessment (NCLB required)

Blooms Taxonomy (levels of cognition under depth of knowledge )  (hint: K.C.

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A.A.S.E)

          Knowledge (level 1 recall)          Comprehension (level 1 recall)          Application (level 2 skill/ concept)          Analysis (level 3 strategic thinking)          Synthesis (level 4 extended thinking)          Evaluation (level 4 extended thinking)
Goal  
def 1.

 a statement that describes in broad terms what the learner will do.  def 2. a general statement of a desired state toward which a program is directed

Good goal writing 
takes into account the long-range vision and states it in short-range measures          Must be directly related to the student needs at present level          Positive statements of student or teacher performance          Must address reasonable, broader outcomes          Provide the logical connection between student needs and service implications
Good objectives  (hint:  S.

M.M.A.R.T)

          Specific- tells what change is going to occur. Has  a clear focus          Meaningful- relates to identified needs          Measurable- empirically observable means to measure change          Assigned to a specific target audience          Realistic- can be accomplished          Timed- specific time to be achieved by
Caring
 teachers ability to empathize with and invest in the protection and development of young people
Classroom climate
the emotional and academic tone in the classrooms
Closure
the process of summarizing a topic and preparing for future learning
Connected discourse
(an element of teacher clarity) means that the teacher’s presentation is logically connected and leads to a point
Effective communication  (hint: P.

C.T.E)

          Precise terminology          Connected discourse          Transition signals–     emphasis
Effective use of time/ organization  (hint: A.

I.E.A)

          allocated time           instructional time          engaged time          academic learning time
Emphasis 
communicating that an idea or topic has special significance           Forms of emphasis-verbal statements, nonverbal behaviors, repetition, written signals
Engaged time
the proportion of instructional time that students are focused and on task
Focus
the process teachers use to attract and maintain student’s attention during a learning activity
Formal assessment
 the process of gathering information about learning progress and making instructional decisions based on the information
Informal assessment
 the process of gathering incidental information about students’ understanding during learning activities
Instructional time
 direct teaching after routines are completes.

(def 2)the amount of time available for learning activities

Instructional Model
          Lesson beginning: review and focus on new learning          Lesson development: content, involving students, practiced feedback         –      Lesson ending: closure and assessment
Ways to present content
 hierarchy, network
Modeling
 the imitation of our actions
Objective
a statement in specific and measurable terms that describes what the learner will know and be able to do.
Parts of an objective (CBC) 
conditions, measurable verb/ behavior, criteria
Sources of objectives
 surveys, taxonomies, benchmarks, standards, analysis of data
Personal teaching efficacy
 the belief that teachers and schools can have an important positive effect on students
Precise terminology
(an element of teacher clarity) means that teachers eliminate vague and ambiguous words and phrases in their lessons.
Review
examines information that has been covered in earlier lessons, activates learners’ backround knowledge, and sets the stage for the new topic
Teacher expectations
 the inferences teachers make about students’ future academic potential and achievement
Teacher-effectiveness research
 these differences in the actions of high-achieving students’ teachers compared to low-achieving students teachers make up the body of knowledge
Transition signal
 communicates that one idea is ending and another is beginning and explains the link between the two.