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Significant learning takes place when the subject matter is relevant to the personal interests of the student
Learning which is threatening to the self (e.g., new attitudes or perspectives) are more easily assimilated when external threats are at a minimum
Learning proceeds faster when the threat to the self is low
Self-initiated learning is the most lasting and pervasive.
Information Processing Theory
A. Miller Principles
Short term memory (or attention span) is limited to seven chunks of information.
Planning (in the form of TOTE units) is a fundamental cognitive process.
Behavior is hierarchically organized (e.g., chunks, TOTE units).
Howard Gardner Principles1.
Individuals should be encouraged to use their preferred intelligences in learning.2. Instructional activities should appeal to different forms of intelligence.3. Assessment of learning should measure multiple forms of intelligence.
Roger Schank Principles
Conceptualization is defined as an act or doing something to an object in a direction.
All conceptualizations can be analyzed in terms of a small number of primative acts.
All memory is episodic and organized in terms of scripts.
Scripts allow individuals to make inferences and hence understand verbal/written discourse.
Higher level expectations are created by goals and plans.
J. Lave Principles
Knowledge needs to be presented in an authentic context, i.
e., settings and applications that would normally involve that knowledge.
Learning requires social interaction and collaboration.
Social Learning Theory
Albert Bandura Principles
The highest level of observational learning is achieved by first organizing and rehearsing the modeled behavior symbolically and then enacting it overtly. Coding modeled behavior into words, labels or images results in better retention than simply observing.
Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if it results in outcomes they value.
Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if the model is similar to the observer and has admired status and the behavior has functional value.
Jack Mezirow Principles
Adult exhibit two kinds of learning: instrumental (e.g., cause/effect) and communicative (e.g., feelings)
Learning involves change to meaning structures (perspectives and schemes).
Change to meaning structures occurs through reflection about content, process or premises.
Learning can involve: refining/elaborating meaning schemes, learning new schemes, transforming schemes, or transforming perspectives.