Phase 1 of the Instrucation Planning Cycles
ReviewCurriculumPlansState and Select ObjectivesOrganize content by time
Phase 2 of the Instructional Planning Cycle
Assess student abilityDetermine relevance to studentsreform objectives if necessary
Phase 3 of the instructional planning cycle
Consider possible methodsreview existing knowledge 
Phase 4 of the instructional planning cycle
Implement instructional strategiesmake corrections as appropriate
Phase 5 of the instructional planning cycle
Select assessment devicescollect evidence of student grow 
Phase 6 of the instructional planning cycle
Judge success of strategiesmake planning ajustmentmatch outcome to expectations
6 Step cycle of instructional delivery 

  1. determined teaching tasks and student outcomes
  2. match objectives to student abilities
  3. design the instuctional process

6 Steps of instructional delivery part 2
4. deliver the planned curriculum 5.

  use feedback to analyze curriculum and instructional6.  adjust instructional delivery

Two levels of classroom planning
Level One Give thought to instructional time, planning for activities, student grouping patterns, standard based curriculum, media and resources
Two levels of classroom planning part 2
Level two is more detailed and requires the selection of activities based on philosophy and learning theory. The most adaptive approach to the curriculum would be to serve the students as a person.

Behavioral Theory

  • Teacher is responsible for student learning
  • Direct instruction or mastery learning
  • B.F. Skinner

Developmental Theory

  • Developmental stages of growth in the student
  • Student motivation comes fulling certain tasks
  • Jean Piaget

Perceptual Theory

  • Broader view of classroom interaction
  • Teachers deliver lesson but students filter them
  • Carl Rogers

Strategies for teaching with a cognitive focus

  • Linking new information to prior knowledge
  •  restructering student background knowledge
  • teaching students how to learn
  • establishing motivation toward a goal
  • teaching student to use prior knowledge to learn more

Semantic Mapping
Where student provide through association to what they are learning.
Restructuring Student Background
This is important because a student may hold a misconception that will distort further learning.

  • An awareness of ones mental process.
  • Modeling behaviors to teaching student how to learn.

  • Students explain answers to highlight thinking and learning.

Teaching can help give motivation to students by making connections between their lessons and the real world.
If you teach students how to organize knowledge they will be more successful in their learning.
Curriculum leaders can never forget that the classroom teacher is the final designer of curriculum.
Study by Hollingshead 1949

  • Environment has a profound influence on learning.

  • When academics are supported at home student record a higher gain.


Integrated curriculum is used to organize and promoted common learning and life skills.
School Based Management
Is an attempt to involve teachers in instructional decision making and to make them more accountable for student achievement.
The Research Shows
When teachers believe they have influence over instructional decision they consider to be important they believe in that decision and positive outcomes come from it.
Curriculum should be

  • student centered
  • integrated curriculum design
  • flexible classroom organization 

The new thing is to combine K-5 schools with Middle schools it gives

  • Greater parent choice
  • a promise of greater testing achievement
  • smaller and more personal learning environments
  • lower high school drop out rates

What is wrong with middle school

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  • More than half are not proficiency in reading math and science
  • our middle schoolers have higher levels of emotional and physical problems than other countries
  • more than 35 percent of middle schoolers report to the school authorities

Compulsory Education 

  • Colonial assembly of Massachusetts in 1642 and 1647

Old Deluder Satan Act

  • Passed by General Court of the Mass.

    bay Colonel

  • Required towns common schools and grammar schools so man could read the scripts and escape the words of Satan.

In 1693 a law was passed allowing school taxes with the consent of the majority of the towns people.
For over a hundred years elememtary teachers use the New England Primer that had bible verses reading and numbers.
They were very hard with discipline they flogged children to try to drive the devil out of them.
Elementary were made for the maintenance of society.
Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi

  • responsible for the building blocks for modern elementary schools
  • viewed child growth and development as natural


Public education schools more popular in the first half of the 1800’s and the legislators were pressured to provide more money for elementary schools.
As the United States became an industrial power school enrollment doubled, new subjects were added to the curriculum and the school day lengthened.
Because of WWI curriculum changed to include greater literacy training and addition vocational programs.
Standardized tests started in the 1930’s to determine achievement in the subject areas and Differential Instrucational.
John Dewey

  • Learning by doing
  • Progressive Education

Innvotions of the 1960’s

  • The absences of grades
  • Open classrooms
  • Team Teaching
  • Teachers were not prepared to cope with this

In the 1970’s and 80’s the enrollment declined and the curriculum became unbalanced.
The curriculum of elementary schools is based on

  • knowledge
  • the needs of society
  • human learning
  • human development

The 1960’s to 1990’s

  • new programs came along
  • free kindergarten
  • head start
  • special education programs


There are many ways to group children but flexible is the key.

  • Builds on basic steps
  • introduces readers to fundamental skills
  • links sounds and letters
  • helps student recognizes words with similar letter sounds

Whole lanngage
Believes that children learn to read the way they learn to talk and there is lots of variety and activities.
When teacher work with the high group of students they get more time, the teacher is nicer, they read 3 times as much as other students and they get more attention.
Low Group
They meet for less time.; Teacher meet with this group last.; Teacher give less time to response to questions.
Children from improverished families

  • 50 percent of children in 2000 live with a single parent.
  • 2/3 of Americans who are poor are white.
  • Drug and alcohol abuse by parents.
  • has contributed to the large number of juvenile delinquents.


Some believe inclusion is main streaming others believe it is putting children with special needs in the regular classroom and others think it means including special needs children only sometimes.