M3: Role of enzymes in the body
Enzymes are biological
catalysts. Catalyst are items that increase the rate of chemical reactions that
are being used up. Enzymes are also a globular protein that can be folded into
complex shapes which allows the smaller molecules to fit into them. Enzymes
also contributes an important role in the chemical processes which takes place
within the cells. Enzymes in our body assist different functions such as the
digestion food, assist the process of providing energy in the body, it also
helps to break down the toxins and detoxifies the blood. Enzymes also helps in
the process of hydrolysis of food molecules into a building block component.
Enzymes perform a major role in digestion.
Digestion is the breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats into small
substances that can be consumed into the blood.
There are different enzymes that performs a role in digestion:
Amylase is a digestive
enzyme that acts on starch in food by breaking it down into smaller
carbohydrate molecules. Amylase is made in two places. Amylase is made in the
salivary glands in our mouth. The process of digesting food starts in the mouth
when breaking the starch down by chewing. Then this will be converted into
maltose. When starch foods such as rice or potatoes, it beings to break down in
our mouth. Therefore, we taste something sweet when we eat starchy foods
because maltose is released.
The pancreas will make a
type of amylase called pancreatic amylase. Pancreatic amylase finishes the
digestion of carbohydrate which will produce glucose, a small molecule that is
absorbed into the blood is carried throughout the body.
Lipase is an enzyme
which breaks down fats into fatty acids and glycerol. Gastric lipase is made by
cell in the stomach and this enzyme digest butter fat in the food that we eat.
The pancreas is the main source of lipase, this makes the pancreatic lipase
acts in the small intestine. The bile made in the liver is released in the
intestine and converts the dietary fat into small globules.
Pancreatic lipase is also called steapsin act
on the fat globules which converts it into fatty acids and glycerol. The fatty
acids and glycerol will travel in the blood and lymph vessels to reach the
parts of the body.
Protease breaks down
protein into its building blocks. The digestive tract produces numerous
enzymes, but the main protease are pepsin, trypsin, and chymotrypsin. The
special cells in the stomach produce pepsinogen which is an inactive enzyme.
This enzyme changes into pepsin when it contacts with the acid environment in
our stomach. Pepsin breaks a chemical bond in proteins which produce a small
molecule called peptides and the beginning of digesting protein.
The pancreas makes the enzymes called trypsin
and chymotrypsin. These enzymes are released into the small intestine through
the pancreatic duct. The food that has been digested goes to the stomach into
the intestine then the trypsin and chymotrypsin develops the protein digestion
completely which produce a simple amino acid that are absorbed into your
Carbohydrase is an
enzyme that breaks down starch into sugar.
Maltase is an enzyme
that catalyse during the hydrolysis of maltose to glucose. maltase is found in
plants, bacteria, and yeast. During digestion, starch is transformed into
maltose by amylase. Then maltase is secreted by the intestine which converts
maltose to glucose.
Lactase is a digestive
enzyme produced by the specialised cells that lines the lumen of the small
intestine. Lactase’s main function in digestion is to break down lactose.
Lactose is found in milk and other dairy products. The body cannot absorb
lactose. Lactase breaks down lactose into small particles called glucose, and
galactose. The intestine absorbs glucose and galactose easily.
Sucrase is an enzyme
that breaks down sucrose into glucose and fructose.
Peptidase is an enzyme
that breaks down peptides into amino acids.