M3: Role of enzymes in the bodyEnzymes are biologicalcatalysts. Catalyst are items that increase the rate of chemical reactions thatare being used up. Enzymes are also a globular protein that can be folded intocomplex shapes which allows the smaller molecules to fit into them. Enzymesalso contributes an important role in the chemical processes which takes placewithin the cells. Enzymes in our body assist different functions such as thedigestion food, assist the process of providing energy in the body, it alsohelps to break down the toxins and detoxifies the blood. Enzymes also helps inthe process of hydrolysis of food molecules into a building block component. Enzymes perform a major role in digestion.
Digestion is the breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats into smallsubstances that can be consumed into the blood. There are different enzymes that performs a role in digestion:1. Amylase2. Lipase3. Carbohydrase4. Protease5. Maltase6. Lactase7.
Pepsin8. Trypsin9. Sucrose10. PeptidaseAmylase Amylase is a digestiveenzyme that acts on starch in food by breaking it down into smallercarbohydrate molecules. Amylase is made in two places. Amylase is made in thesalivary glands in our mouth. The process of digesting food starts in the mouthwhen breaking the starch down by chewing.
Then this will be converted intomaltose. When starch foods such as rice or potatoes, it beings to break down inour mouth. Therefore, we taste something sweet when we eat starchy foodsbecause maltose is released. The pancreas will make atype of amylase called pancreatic amylase. Pancreatic amylase finishes thedigestion of carbohydrate which will produce glucose, a small molecule that isabsorbed into the blood is carried throughout the body.LipaseLipase is an enzymewhich breaks down fats into fatty acids and glycerol. Gastric lipase is made bycell in the stomach and this enzyme digest butter fat in the food that we eat.
The pancreas is the main source of lipase, this makes the pancreatic lipaseacts in the small intestine. The bile made in the liver is released in theintestine and converts the dietary fat into small globules. Pancreatic lipase is also called steapsin acton the fat globules which converts it into fatty acids and glycerol.
The fattyacids and glycerol will travel in the blood and lymph vessels to reach theparts of the body.ProteaseProtease breaks downprotein into its building blocks. The digestive tract produces numerousenzymes, but the main protease are pepsin, trypsin, and chymotrypsin. Thespecial cells in the stomach produce pepsinogen which is an inactive enzyme.
This enzyme changes into pepsin when it contacts with the acid environment inour stomach. Pepsin breaks a chemical bond in proteins which produce a smallmolecule called peptides and the beginning of digesting protein. The pancreas makes the enzymes called trypsinand chymotrypsin. These enzymes are released into the small intestine throughthe pancreatic duct. The food that has been digested goes to the stomach intothe intestine then the trypsin and chymotrypsin develops the protein digestioncompletely which produce a simple amino acid that are absorbed into yourcirculation.
CarbohydraseCarbohydrase is anenzyme that breaks down starch into sugar.MaltaseMaltase is an enzymethat catalyse during the hydrolysis of maltose to glucose. maltase is found inplants, bacteria, and yeast. During digestion, starch is transformed intomaltose by amylase. Then maltase is secreted by the intestine which convertsmaltose to glucose. LactaseLactase is a digestiveenzyme produced by the specialised cells that lines the lumen of the smallintestine.
Lactase’s main function in digestion is to break down lactose.Lactose is found in milk and other dairy products. The body cannot absorblactose.
Lactase breaks down lactose into small particles called glucose, andgalactose. The intestine absorbs glucose and galactose easily. SucroseSucrase is an enzymethat breaks down sucrose into glucose and fructose.PeptidasePeptidase is an enzymethat breaks down peptides into amino acids.