middle school
specifically structured to meet the developmental needs of young adolescents of ages 10-15
william alexander
father of middle schools
junior high vs.

middle school

middle school is student centered/oriented and focuses on life skills; junior high is more core academic based
middle school texts/important organizations
middle school journal, middle ground, turning points, this we believe, AMLE.org
Parents Concerns about Middle School
parents are more concerned with safety both physically and emotionally more so than the actual schooling;
physical development issues
puberty, wellness, sexual maturation, etc
Jean Piaget
Swiss psychologist• Cognitive development is continual• Worked with Binet on measuring intelligence through tests• Theory of cognitive development • Combination of environmental influence andthe brain’s maturation• Schema, adaptation, assimilation, accommodation, & equilibrium
Elkind
• American child psychologist • Has written several books, etc., regarding howplay is important to early development• Concerned with developmentally appropriate and inappropriate instruction
stages of cognitive development
– Sensorimotor – Preoperational – Concrete operational– Formal operational
middle school abstract topic
healthy eating, bullying, etc
steps of information processing
» Selection» Interpretation » Memory » Inference » Thinking» Reasoning » Action
metacognition
knowing about knowing, refers to insights children have about their own cognitive processes
moral metacognition
refers to the knowledge that children have about their own morality? Able to think about their moral reasoning processes? More likely to be aware of inconsistencies in reasoning and were also more likely to attempt to resolve these inconsistencies.
4 dimensions of the self
? Basic self-concept ? Transitory self-concepts (mood) ? Social self (how others see us) ? Ideal self (would like to be)
change in self concept
? Basic self-concept ? Transitory self-concepts (mood) ? Social self (how others see us) ? Ideal self (would like to be)
Erik Erikson
believed there were seven key conflicts that help enable an individual to determine their self- identity.Three of these are particularly connected to transitioning from childhood to adulthood
marcia’s identity statuses
? Identity diffused: have not experienced a crisis period (time of identity choices), nor made any commitment (choice).

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? Foreclosure: have not experienced a crisis but they have made commitments to occupations and ideologies that are not the result of their own searching but are ready-made and handed down to them, frequently by parents.? Moratorium: means a period of delay granted to someone who is not yet ready to make a decision or assume an obligation. During adolescence, a period of exploration of alternatives before commitments are made.? Identity Achieved: have experienced a psychological moratorium, have resolved their identity crisis by carefully evaluating various alternatives and choices, and have come to conclusions and decisions on their own.

ethnic identity development
separation dissimilationintegration marginality
What is Gender-schema theory?
multistep developmental process through which children come to appreciate gender appropriate actions.
What is multiple intelligences?
verballogical visual bodily musical inter personal intra personal naturalistexistentialist
Four learning styles
Imaginative AnalyticCommon Sense Dynamic
What are Learning modalities?
refers to how students use their senses in the learning processcan be four things visual auditory kinesthetic tacile