Most second or
foreign language learners commit numerous mistakes while communicating , as
they apply the rules of their own native languages . Collocations are ideal
example of such errors . These learners
consider that a one –to –one similarity , sameness , and identical order exist
among source and target languages . This false notion derives learners to
commit collocational errors . Thus , foreign language learners must know that:
different languages have different collocation systems and styles , what
collocates in one language does not necessarily collocate in another language .
used in their primary sense , they can easily be apprehended and then
translated . Examples are:
1-Road map:????? ???? 2-Absolute
3-Diplomatic bag:????? ????????? 4-Football:??? ???
Whereas the opposite is true ; when collocations used
in their secondary sense , they seem more complicated and difficult to be
translated by learners of a foreign language learners , especially beginners .
Examples are :
1-Heavy smoker:???? ???? 2-Heavy seas:???? ????? 3-Landslide
war/football :??? ?????/???
mostly used by native or native –like speakers because they consider them as a
gate to producing natural –sounding language . Collocations add flavor to
languages as well .
A simple method
to distinguish whether a collocation is correctly used is that if it sounds
right to native speakers .
Collocation learning is an integral part
of learning lexis of a language. Collocations are the flavor of language
vocabulary. Certain are close and straight;
in terms of they cannot be replaced by any other similar words for
example, go shopping, go swimming, where other word or words can replace ‘go’.
Some collocations are more open and flexible for example, difficult/ hard/ tough question or decision and keep/stick
to the rules. The choice of using a certain word for collocation with other
depends on whether the word is formal, informal, common.
McCarthy et al. (2005 :6) define collocation
”a collocation is a pair or group of words
that are often used together .
sets of words seem natural and normal to any English language native speaker,
whereas, English foreign language learners usually find them an uneasy task to
know or to guess their meanings unless specific efforts exerted.
Media is communication outlets for
dissemination of information for the public. Oxford Advanced Learner’s
Dictionary (2010: 922) defines the media ”The main ways that large numbers of
people receive information and entertainment, that is television, radio,
newspapers, and the Internet” .Thus,
media can be categorized into different types:
1-Print Media: Newspapers, magazines, and
2-Broadcasting: Radio and television.
3-Electronic Media: Mobile phones, computers
( laptops and desktops), tablets, smart televisions and radios, MP3 Players,
game systems, and DVDs.
Collocations Associated with term ‘Media’:
4-Social media: Online supported networks
as: Blogs, Facebook, Twitter, Instgram, Whatssap, Skype, and e –mail. Social
media outlets use is on the rise especially among young generations.
Significance of Collocations:
Learning collocations is a good idea
because they can:
a-give us the most natural way to say
something :’Smoking is strictly forbidden’ is more natural than ‘smoking is
strongly forbidden’ .According to Oxford
Collocations Dictionary (2002:vii) ” Collocations run through the whole of
English language and no piece of natural spoken or written English is totally
free of collocations ”
b-give us alternative ways of saying
something , which may be more colorful , expressive , or more precise : instead
of repeating : It was very cold and very
dark , we can say : It was bitterly cold and pitch dark .
c- improve learning style : instead of
saying poverty causes crime , we can say poverty breeds crime ; instead of
saying a big meal we can say a substantial meal . These can give the text more
variety and make it read better . Hill , (2000: 55) supports
”Collocation is the significant key to fluency”.
The interest in the translation of
collocation comes from their great importance in language. They are also the
source of its attraction and special flavor, which makes it more beautiful, more rhetorical and more
Translators and translation students in
particular, are indeed required to be extra sensitive to collocations in
translation, patient, cautious and highly interested in spotting the proper
collocation in Arabic. Crystal (1981:32) defines collocations as: “The habitual
co- occurrence of individual lexical item”. They are compositions of two, three or several
words which always combine together in different language situations. Yule
(1996:122) mentions that
“some collocations are joined pairs of words such as= salt and pepper or husband and wife
–However, salt will also make some people say water because of the common collocation Salt water. It may
be the part of Knowing a language is not only what words mean, but what their typical collocations