Motivation is an organisational tool that isused by employers to get the best out of employees or staff. There are various motivationaltheorise organisations base on to device the best motivational campaign fortheir employees. Some of the major theorists are Mayo, Taylor, Maslow,Herzberg, McGregor, McClelland and Vroom.
In the below text I will explain how Vaselineuses some of these theories to motivate their staff so they can attain thereneeded production.Frederick Taylor was one of theearliest theorists and according to him people purely work for money. FrederickTaylor was engineer in a car assembly industry, he was able to device thistheory of pay by work done because workers were working in a production linewhich was based on quantity and was repetitive this was how the piece ratetheory was devised. This method of motivating employees was good for businessesthat had a repetitive frame of work and thus not focus on quality but quantity.This system of payment also reduces creativity and development in employeesbecause work is repetitive. Vaseline’s Employee motivational programme has somesimilarity to Taylor’s theory which they believe will reduce their employeeturnover and increase satisfaction as a result of employees being able to helpand interact with customers. Vaseline believes there are more factors other thanmoney which motivate people in both their personal and working lives this has madeVaseline goes beyond Taylor’s theory togive employees more than just a simple pay increases it has put in place various support factor to support everyemployee in their lifestyle through relevant and targeted benefits.
Elton Mayo became a motivationaltheorist in the early 1930s suggesting that motivation at work place wasincreased by certain factors such as:· Democratic decision making· Team effort· Ensuring work is challenging and competitive· Making employees fill valued and ensuring theirwellbeingMayo based these assumptions on aresearch undertaken with workers at the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electriccompany in Chicago. This research later resulted in the Hawthorne theory.Motivation was reduced when the work became repetitive and brought aboutboredom which drastically reduced output. He believed that motivation couldonly be achieved if employees were made to feel important by acknowledgingtheir social needs and giving them a degree of freedom to make choices. AtVaseline Hawthorne theory has been made to operate throughout the communicationchannels which are one of the factors of motivating employees. This can be seenwhen employees hold one to one discussions with managers and also performanceappraisals. Employees will feel very important if they are regularly updated onthe happenings in and around the company and also told some of the decisionstop management makes so they can so they can contribute and make adjustment ifthey can. Vaseline holds an annual career discussion with every employee thisis to help them become better at what they are already doing and also a greatmotivational factor to the employees this is why Vaseline has adopted the internal recruitment as a wayof motivating .
Vaseline appointed 3000 managers in the year 2009. Abraham Maslow was an Americansociologist who argued that every human being had a hierarchy of needs which hedemonstrated in a form of a pyramid which had the basic needs at the bottomthese are mainly food and shelter once those needs have been met the individualmoves up the pyramid with another want which are safety and security andexample will be a good job and having a job security that is the individualthus not have to loss he job anytime soon. The third need on the pyramid is thesocial need which refers to the need to belong to an association or group thefourth need on the pyramid is having self-esteem which may be as a result ofpromotion or social statues. The top most of the Abraham Maslow hierarchy ofneed is the self-fulfilment or self-actualisation this is where an individual hasattained his life goal. How Vaseline uses the Maslow theory to motivate itsstaff they provide regular monthly pay to workers to ensure their basic need ismet and when it comes to the security needs Vaseline provides its workers withjob security by giving a contract of employment.
Vaseline promotes a goodworking condition through team work this ensures the social needs of employeesare met. Vaseline emphasise on self-respect and respect for others and praisefor handwork. Vaseline offers personal development plans for their staff tohelp them achieve their goals in life.Frederick Herzberg developed a Two-Factortheory of motivation in the year 1959 his research was based his research onwhat motivates or satisfier’s hygiene maintenance employees. The researchshowed that to truly motivate people an employer needs to create certainconditions that will help the feel fulfilled in his area of work.’ His researchshowed that certain factors were the true motivators or satisfiers.
Hygienefactors, in contrast, created dissatisfaction if they were absent orinadequate. Dissatisfaction could be prevented by improvements in hygienefactors but these improvements would not alone provide motivation.’ HowVaseline uses the Herzberg two-factor theory to motivate its staff Vaselinepays attention to both the hygiene factors and the motivators to ensure highproductivity throughout the business from manufacturing firms to distributionand selling. Even thou they are somesimilarities between some of this theorist I like to distinguish between someof their main factors of motivation.The differences and similaritiesbetween Frederick Taylor’s theory and Mayo’s theory these two theorist basedtheir assumption on workers in different area of work Taylor’s assumptions wasbased on workers in a car assembly plant whiles Mayo’s assumptions were basedon workers of the Western Electric company in Chicago even thou these twoworking environment were different their theories had some similarity anddifferences both theorist knew that workers were lazy and one thing that canmotivate them is money but mayo went a step further to find out that not onlymoney motivated workers but they also had personal and social needs that needto be dealt with so he stated that managers should set up a personal departmentto deal with the issues of workers in the work place. Taylor believed in closecontrol and supervision it could be seen clearly that Taylor wanted anautocratic style of leadership whiles mayo was a democratic style of leadershipbecause he wanted worker to be involved in decision making. How Vaseline usesthe difference and the similarities of these two theorists to motivate itsemployees even thou the two theories were developed in different circumstancesto that of Vaseline they could be applicable in the warehouses and factories a classic example will be Taylor’sassumption that every worker is lazy and needs to be motivated with money (highwage rate) Mayo also acknowledge this but he went as step further to sayworkers also had personal and social needs that need to be dealt with so hestated that managers should set up a personal department to deal with theissues of workers in the work place this personal department now known as humanresources could see to it that both Taylor’s and mayo’s assumptions all being used to get the best out of workers aan example of this could be paying workers a high working rate and alsoproviding safety needs for the employees this will make them feel they are partof the organisation due to the care the human resources department shows.The differences and similaritiesbetween Frederick Herzberg’s theory and Abraham Maslow’s theory these twotheorist in their era tried to discover what could motivate employees this wasone of the objectives these two theorist had in common Herzberg in addition tohis theory of motivation he discovered that unhygienic environments in work places could demotivate employeeswhiles Maslow talked about following a systematic way of motivating employees thiswas done by following the pyramid theory of Maslow starting from the basicneeds.
Herzberg believed in giving responsibilities and recognition to workersthis could be factored in the social needs of Maslow as he also spoke of makingworkers feel wanted in the work place. Maslow also had safety needs of workersas one his hierarchy needs this could be in a form of job security Herzbergincluded this in his hygiene theory. How Vaseline uses the difference and thesimilarities of these two theorists to motivate its employees.
Herzberg had atwo way theory which was the motivators and the satisfier’s whiles Maslow had apyramid showing the different stages of needs these two motivationalassumptions are very well used by Vaseline to motivate its employees. Vaselinecombines the satisfier’s hygiene maintenance theory of Herzberg and thesafety needs of Maslow in dealing with employee motivation this could be seenin the factories and warehouses of Vaseline they provide a clean workingenvironment and also a safety uniform for all employees. The differences and similaritiesbetween Abraham Maslow’s theory and Mayo’s theory are just a few and verysimilar because they both talked money not being the only motivator foremployees they both believe that employees had their own personal and socialneeds that could be used to motivate them to work harder.
Mayo spoke aboutincreasing communication and team work at the work place this could be factoredinto the social needs of Maslow the only difference between these two theoristis that Maslow went ahead and discovered that employees have more than justbasic and social needs that could be used to motivate them he spoke aboutsafety needs self-esteem needs and self-actualization this is the point whenone becomes fulfilled with him or herself. Vaseline use a combination ofMaslow’s and Mayo’s theory to ensure that both personal and social needs ofemployees are meet this is than by having workers on a one to one session withthe human resource management to discuss their future plan pertaining the theirparticular role they perform in the work place the issues which are discussedinclude pension, maternity, promotion, social needs and issues that affectworkers. The differences and similaritiesbetween Frederick Herzberg’s and Frederick Taylor’s theory can be verydifficult to distinguish because they both had traces of autocratic leadershipbecause they did not believed in giving responsibility to workers and takingall decisions single handily the only difference in their style of leadershipwas Herzberg gave recognition for hard work whiles Taylor saw money as the onlyrecognition for hard work another difference will be the motivational factorsthat Herzberg introduced as not a necessary factor of motivation but ademotivating factor Taylor didn’t mention any of these in his theory but just paying workers on a highrate was his way of motivating staff. Vaseline employees work with diligentbecause each employee knows what he or she has to do and what not to do theyhave less authority because they have supervisors taking charge and giving theminstructions and making sure they put to work all the hours they are being paidfor this type autocratic leadership is derived from Frederick Herzberg’s andFrederick Taylor’s.
Motivation in an organisationneeds to be planned in other to suit the employees of that organisation. One ofthe ways of improving motivation in an organisation is to consider what the employeesneed to get motivated and select the suitable type of motivational theory thisis why I suggest that different types of motivational structures should be putin place to be able to get the best of employee’s because motivation is one ofthe keys to having a loyal and strong working force to produce the right amountof output needed and also employees have different physical and emotional aimsthat need to be met the employer. Motivation also has an emotional effectbecause using mayo’s theory in motivating employees through democratic decisionmaking makes the feel important to the company and develop a sense ofbelongingness. The reason why one motivational structure does not work on alltype of employees is that the motivational structure being used was designedbased on a certain type of work description an example will be the FrederickTaylor theory which was designed in a car assembly industry, he was able todevice this theory of pay by work done because workers were working in aproduction line which was based on quantity and was repetitive this was how thepiece rate theory was devised such a motivational theory will not be good tofor an Assistant manager of a company because he is already getting a goodsalary at the end of the month so the need for money will not be necessarily bea motivational factor for him this is why Elton mayo ‘s theory is designed tobring all staff together to make them feel part of the company it makes themfeel they are part of the company and will do everything right to make it grow.Incentives are also motivational instruments for some organisations. Incentivescome in all forms depending on what type of business its involved in producingand type of incentive they are willing to give to its employees as an incentivepackage some organisations give their employees a discount on their own type ofproduct or even sometimes give them some of the products for free thisincentive package is to serve as a source of motivator to the employees to theemployee this type of motivational tool cannot be applicable to all nature ofwork because some incentive packages will to be useful to some employees and sotherefore will not be serving its purpose of motivating staff to work harder andincrease output. There are a lot of motivational factors that can be applicableto a particular work force that is why it is very essential for an organisationto a good motivational plan put in place to suit its own work force this canonly be achieved if the organisation values all the types of organisationalstructures and selects the suitable one for its staff.
An example of a companythat uses a combination of motivational factors to motivate staff will be Tesco. Tesco holds an annual career discussion withevery employee this is to help them become better at what they are alreadydoing and also a great motivational factor to the employees this is why Tescohas adopted the internal recruitment as a way of motivating staff also Tescogoes beyond Taylor’s theory to give employees more than just a simple payincreases it has put in place various support factor to support every employeein their lifestyles through relevant and targeted benefits. Taking into account the currentsituation it can be seen that the morale of the workforce is low at the moment.
Due to this reason, there is high turnover rate and also is the causeof absenteeism. For this matter Maslow’s hierarchy and Mayo’s theory of humanrelation can do wonders. If self-actualisation is provided by thecompany to enhance the skills of their workforce then Tesco willbenefit from it in the long run. The more the employees get skilled the morewill the service quality increase and thus increasethe customer satisfaction rate. This will enable the employees to bemotivated as they can be getting promotions for their goodwork. Thus, the employees would not think of leaving Tesco. Thesense of working in teams will also be a vital player in the motivation of theemployees.
If the employee work together in teams they get to know their peersand other employees better. They develop better understanding that lifts up theperformance of the whole organisation. The long and tedious hours ofworking and low security have also demotivated the employees. Forthis purpose, Herzberg’s two-factor theory is the best solution. A goodmotivator for the employees at this stage can be giving them interesting workto do. Cut down their long tedious shifts to normal sized shifts and give thendifferent task every day.
Provide them with facilities to relax a bit (theconcept of breaks by Taylor can be used at this point).When Tesco will do all this, it will make the employee feelgood about their jobs. Formation of formal and informal groups at this stagewill also be beneficial for the organisation. The Hygiene factor at this pointcan be providing security to the employees especially to those who work atnight. We know that there is high crime rate in that area. No employee wouldwant to work in such a place living is by far out ofquestion. So, Tesco must try to provide as much security aspossible to all its employees so that they are not intimidated at any point ofthe day while working. As stated there has been adecline in the standards as well.
This is also clearly a lack of motivation.There is lot of potential in the organisation but the work forces thehuman element needs to be boosted up. The social aspect of the strategy must beunderstood and motivational theories at all level from higher, middle and lowerlevel must be implemented in order to regain the good standards that Tesco oncehad. If Mayo, Maslow and Herzberg’stheories are implemented in a proper way in Tesco the organisationcan be up and running within a matter of few days. New recruitment will alsowork as a catalyst in this scenario. New workforce coming from abroad will makethe working environment more competitive and employees if given incentive withproper rewards and recognition will strive to do better than ever. Motivation can also be improvedamong employees by using job rotation at work for example different staff canbe assigned to observe during seasonal occasions so that they can seehow Tesco is carried out. This gives them time to have newexperiences and also this can act as an educational tour which can improvetheir skills.
Motivation in Tesco canbe improved by offering representatives some incentives for examplefree parking space, subsidised travel, vouchers, health insurance schemes, andnursery places for example if they are offered vouchers, it is like way ofappreciating their services such instead of paying for a mealin employee’s canteen, they can only pay half price which is theirway of being motivated. Free parking space enable them to free to come inwhenever they want because they will not charge for parking whichallows them to do extra work for example the low skilled workers can come in onweekends to clean. Offering nursery placesallows staff to bring their children to study which willallow them to have spare time that they have been using to go to get theirkids from schools but if Tesco offers nursery placesto staff then they can bring their kids to work in the morningand go back home with them in the evening. Which allows them to fulfiltheir parental responsibilities at the same time with them working.