The state or fact of being different
The values, symbols, interpretations, and perspectives that distinguish one people from another in modernized societies.
A group of persons related by common descent or heredity; the common being Caucasian, Negro, Asian, Native American, etc.

 A population whose members share a greater degree of physical and genetic similiarity with one another. 

Ethnic traits, background, allegiance, or association
The Christian World View

1. Where are we?
   In God’s fallen creation, our world
2.; Who are we?
;; God’s image-bearers
3.  What’s wrong?
;; We have sinned;we have a sin nature
4 .; What’s the remedy?
   God’s son, Jesus, died ; rose from the grave to;
;; bring salvation

Multicultural Competencies:;Awareness;;;;
;You can identify the specific cultural group from which you derive your cultural heritage ; the significant beliefs ; attitudes held by those cultures that are assimilated into your own attitudes ; beliefs ; can recognize the impact of those beliefs on your ability to respect others who are different.;;; * Knowledge of how oppressions have affected you pesonnally ; in your work;;;; * Recognize areas of limitation ; seek out educational, consultative, ; training experiences;
Multicultural Competencies:;Knowledge;

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Understand the stereotypes ; preconceived notions you hold about others
;;; *Possess knowledge ; info. about the groups you are working with -nonverbal ; verbal behavior, effects of the historical of contact with the dominant society, sociopolitical influences that impinge upon the life of ethnic ; racial groups
;;; *Able to discuss recent research regarding mental health, career decision making, educ.

; learning,etc.

Multicultural Competencies:;Skill;

Demonstrate respect of others’ religious and/or spiritual beliefs & values; knowledge of the generic characteristics of your profession that are class & culture bound & how those characteristics may clash with those culturally different from you.
    * Able to modify techniques & interventions to be more effective 

Multicultural Competencies: Experience 
Opportunities you have to interact with & serve those who are different from you.
Multicultural Education
The idea that all students, regardless of their gender, social class & ethnic, racial or cultural characteristics should have an equal opportunity to learn in school.
To maintain your traditional orientation & customs, cultural practices & values while blending into the dominant culture
To exchange your native customs, cultural practices & values for those of the dominant culture- Abandon your culture for the dominant one.
Multicultural Counseling
A helping role and process that uses modalities & defines goals consistent with the life experiences & cultural values of clients. Balances the importance of individualism & collectivism in the assessment, diagnosis, & treatment of clients.

Identity Development(Definition)
* Validated self understanding that defines individuals * Occurs within social context;first within family then outside        family *Understand how racial/cultural identity develops is crucial as   we strive to understand/intervene those we support
 Racial/Cultural Dev. Model Stage 1Conformity
* Unequivocal preference for dominant cultural values over their own; white Americans are reference group; their own   lifestyles, values, physical/cultural characteristics are less   valued.ex. An African American girl would want to play with white dolls     rather than black ones.* They have internalized society’s definitions about their minority status in society.
Racial/Cultural Dev. Model;Stage 2Dissonance Stage
* Beliefs in the conformity stage are challenged ; questioned,; usually because of experiences/info.

that contradicts those;; beliefs.;*There is increased awareness that racism exists; one can’t   escape their cultural heritage; not all aspects of minority/ majority culture are good/bad; stereotypes w/ other minority   groups are challenged.

Racial/Cultural Dev. Model Stage 3Resistance and Immersion Stage
* Rejecting of the dominant values, distance yourself from   the dominant culture; complete endorsement of minority-held  views; immerse yourself in your culture* Sig.

feelings of guilt/shame that you’ve ;sold out; in the past, ; ; contributed to the oppression of your minority* Feel as though you have been brainwashed by white society,;; view white society as oppressors; may see anger here* Focus on discovery of own culture; try to learn as much as ; you can

Racial/Cultural Dev. Model;Stage 4Introspection Stage
* Proactive effort to discover who you are;leads to positive;; self definition* Views held in resistant ; immersion stage no longer feel ;; comfortable* Individual ; group views may conflict based on experience* May be confused with conformity stage, but differs in ;;; motivation (no neg. sense of self) Diverse group of friends*Indvidual autonomy surfaces;recognize many highly functional ; cultures in US
Racial/Cultural Dev. Model;Stage 5Integrative Awareness stage
* Develop an inner sense of security ; can appreciate unique;; aspects of both cultures* Conflicts that arose in previous stages are resolved* Strong commitment ; desire to eliminate all forms of oppression;**Few people reach this stage**Balanced and healthy to be here
White Indentity Development;What does it mean to be white?
* Typical responses: rather not talk about it; uncomfortable; ;; react negatively to being labeled ;White;* Institutionalized ; normative; may seem invisible* May self identify w/ another culture (Irish, German)* White Privilege- whiteness associated with unearned ;;; advantages conferred on White Americans but not ;;; people of color.

ex. Locking your car doors:;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; White person- don’t lock                           Black person- do lock

White Indentity Development What does it mean to be white?
* Hinders one’s ability to recognize ; take responsibility for ;; prejudices ; biases;* Difficult for anyone to avoid inheriting racial biases,prejudices, ;; misinformation, ; stereotypes in our society
Status of White Identity Dev.;Contact Status
* oblivious to racism;believes everyone has equal chance for ;; success;lack understanding of discrimination/prejudice;minimal;; experience w/ people of color;* Does not see self as dominant group member
Status of White Identity Dev.;Disintegration Status
* Obliviousness of contact stage breaks down; conflict arises; over a moral dilemma;witnessing oppression or racism;* May experience feelings of guilt;*;I am not against interracial marriage, I just worry about the;; kids;
Status of White Identity Dev.;Reintegration Status
* Go back to your beliefs about White superiority despite any;; prior experiences* Idealizing the White group ; positives of white culture;;; intolerance of other minority groups, blame them for their own;;;problems*;No one helped me when I came to this country;
Status of White Identity Dev.;Pseudoindependence Status
* Defining a non-racist identity* May be propelled to this stage by a painful/insightful ;; encounter* Attempt to understand racial,cultural differences;conscious;;;decision to interact w/ minorities who are similar ;;help them;;;adjust to white standards; may be an intellectual pursuit
Status of White Identity Dev.;Immersion/Emmersion Status
* Continue exploring what it means to be White- Start having;;;conversations w/out feeling uncomfortable;* Seeks understanding of the personal meaning of racism ; how;; one benefits from White privilege;* Increased willingness to confront one’s biases
Status of White Identity Dev. Autonomy Status
* Increasing awareness of one’s Whiteness;decreased guilt;;; accept one’s role in perpetuating racism;determination to    abandon White entitlement * Strong development of non-racist White identity * Can explore racism & personal responsibility w/out    defensiveness
Defensive Functions of African American Indentity
* Awareness that racism is part of American experience* Recognize that regardless your place in society,you can be   a target for racism* Find fault w/ situation because of your race rather than    fault w/ yourself* Religious orientation prevents need to demonize whites; evil  that is racism is human evil
Defensive Functions of African American Indentity CAUTION!
* If defensive functions of Af.

Am. identity are too active, the    individual will see racism where it doesn’t exist (can’t make   assumptions)* If the defensive functions of Af.Am.

are not developed enough  the individual will not be prepared to deal with racism  **There is a double standard in the Af. Am. community

Reference Group Functions of African American Indentity
* Need to feel wanted,accepted,affiliated w/a group (ex.    professional counselors, Christian, etc)* For those whose Black Identity is their reference group, it is   important to their well-being, purpose in life, & their sense of    connection to other Blacks
Strategies for working withAfrican Americans
* Identify family constellations: extended family, help w/ childrearing, strong    work ethic, strong religious orientation, men more willing to share     responsibilities assigned to women in the home* Focus on religious aspects; enlist support of church/pastor* Work through barriers* Be an advocate* Negotiate goals & expectations* Consider racism being part of their problem* Identify the degree to which they have adopted majority cultural values
Tuskegee Experiment
* 1932-1972* US Public Health Service* 399 Af. Am. men w/ late stages of syphilis* Sharecroppers from poorest counties in Alabama* Never told what their disease was or how serious; told they    were being treated for "bad blood"* No real intent to cure them* Goal: to collect data from autopsies to discover how syphilis           affects Af.Am. as opposed to Whites
Tuskegee Experiment
Goal: To collect data from autopsies of deceased men to         discover how syphilis affects Af.

Americans as opposed        to Caucasians Theory: Af. Americans experienced more cardiovascular damage;           Caucasians more neurological complications

Tuskegee ExperimentOutcome
* Nothing of value learned from experiment* 28 men died as direct result from disease* 100 died of complications* 40 wives affected* 19 children born w/ syphilis* Source of distrust within Af. American community toward    health care industry
Working w/ African AmericanMen Micro-Agressions
* Multiple subtle (or not so subtle) experiences w/ discrimination   negatively impact self-esteem & can fuel intense anger    toward CaucasiansEx.1. Someone locking their door when he crosses the street2. Noticing a women clutch her purse when he gets on an      elevator3. Not allowed in a nightclub even though he is dressed like     everyone else
Living on the Down Low
* Book by J.

L. King * The need for gay Af. Am. men to keep their gay lifestyle    secret;may maintain a heterosexual lifestyle in public while    engaging in homosexual activities privately * Terry McMillen and ex husband Jonathan Plummer

Living on the Down Low
* Places unsuspecting wives at risk for sexually transmitted  diseases * Defies cultural/religious norms * Fuels conflicts within Af. American community in regard for the   lack of eligible Af. American men for the Af.

American women