?n the early twentieth century ,Rutherford showed that most of an atom’s mass is concentrated in a small , positively charged region called nucleus.English chemist and physicist Ernest Rutherford  studied the effects of striking thin gold foil with alpha particles. Alpha particles are helium atoms that have lost their electrons and therefore they  are positively charged. Rutherford reasoned that the way alpha particles traveled through the gold foil would give him information about the structure of gold atoms in the foil. Rutherford proposed a model from his experiment. This experiment’s name is gold foil experiment.  The model described the atom as a tiny, dense, positively charged called a nucleus, whatever all the mass is concentrated, around which the light, negative constituents called as  electron. Atom has a nucleus that contins mass of the atom and is made up of particles called protons .Protons have a positive charge. The protons are surrounded by electrons. Electrons have negative charges. Most of the atom empty place.Ernest Rutherford was born on 30 august 1871.  He was Born in rural spring Grove on the South of  New zealand.Rutherford is the father of nuclear physics. He was a first person who cleft the atom. Rutherford was accoladed the 1908 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his theory of atomic structure. He dubbed as a father of nuclear age. He died in Cambridge, England, on 19 october 1937 . He died because of a strangulated hernia.Erwin Schrodinger purposed example for electron cloud model in 1926.. Electrons were no longer represented as particles which moving around a central nucleus in a fixed orbit. Their  locations could only be described as being part of a ‘cloud’ around the nucleus where the electrons are found The electron cloud is ?the region of negative charge surrounding an atomic nucleus that is associated with an atomic orbital. The region is defined as describing a region with a high. Accourited with radioactive sources, physicists were autited the nucleus  of atoms so in 1919 Rutherford could generate the first atomic transformation called as a nuclear reaction. By firing alpha particles at nitrogen atoms, he could transform them into oxygen.Planetary Model of an atomThe model described the atom as a tiny, dense, positively charged called as nucleus, whatever nearly all the mass is concentrated, around the light, negative consistuents , called electrons . The subsisted of subatomic particiles called electrons and protons.Rutherford tested Thomson’s hypothesis by devising is gold foil experiment in 1911. Rutherford reosoned that if Thomsan’s model was correct then the mass of the atom was brouded through the atom. If he shot high velocity alpha particles at an atom then there would be very little to avoided to the alpha particles. He decided to test this with a film of gold atoms. As he expected that most alpha particles went right through the gold foil but to his amezement a few alpha particles recovered   almost directly backwards. Also Rutherford’s model stated that positively charged atoms were found in the center of the atoms also called as nucleus. Negatively charged electrons were found in around the nucleus.