Audience- who?Behavior- doing what. ex: will match, will identify, will define, etc.Condition- given whatDegree- how often, how much, how many times, etc._____________________________A = Audience: student, learner, groupB = VERB (something that you can actually measure) “Will name” “Will match” “Will categorize” “Will draw” “Will list” “Will summarize” “Will create” (AKA: Measurable Behavior)C = Condition. When given..
.. or, Given what..
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.. “When asked” or “When presented with” Answer loopholes here. Can they use their calculator? Dictionary? Textbook? Examples? List all of those things so that even a substitute would know the rules of your lesson by looking at the lesson plan.D = Degree. How often? How accurately? Distance..
.What # correct?
What are content standards?
Content standards-tell us what it is that a student will learn, and often broadly defined, and often involve learning a number of concepts.-can be broken down to specific goals that you are going to teach.
What is the web site where you can find standards for California?
What are the areas of content standards in California?
· English-Language Arts· Mathematics· Health· History-Social Science· Physical Education· Science· Visual and Performing Arts–World Language? ^Becky thinks this should be added but at the same time that topic was not in the textbook (I believe..
How can visual context be added to teacher presentations to students?
· Use real objectso Teach vocab, model desired actions, demonstrate relationships with real objects· Use illustrationso Pics from a book, internet, draw simple pics· Focus on key vocab.o Use signed conversations to highlight key vocabo Make print available for key vocab· Use color or spaceo Colored pens/markers to highlighto Classifiers and signing space· Use graphic organizerso Concept maps, webs, venn diagram, timeline, etc.· State directions more than one time and in more than one way· Use conversation to scaffold information for studentso Ask questions using child’s language levelo Use self talko Role play
Show, explain … go – how can this strategy be utilized in different subject areas?
Throughout the lesson, provide visual support and give explanation BEFORE asking students to respond to questions.·Modeling language without asking questionso Today we will read about _______.
Then ask a question.·Follow-up if student does not answer questiono Restate question using different words·CRAFT ACTIVITY:o SHOW- finished modelo EXPLAIN- purpose of activityo GO- pass out supplies·READING A STORYo SHOW- book (give time to look through the book) o EXPLAIN- background info. To understand contexto GO- begin story·TEACHING NEW VOCABo SHOW-have flashcards, or scanned copy with pictures of vocab wordo EXPLAIN- how word is used in story, additional uses of the wordo GO- student copies your sign for that word
What are the features of conversation that promote language development?
Input plus one tiny bit of information. The information needs to be something that the child can understand, but just a little bit more complex than they are used to hearing. When a child says “big dinosaur” and the mother says “yes, it’s big. It’s a huge dinosaur.” zpd – Vygotsky’s Theory. Zone of Proximal Development. This number will be found on the print out forms from the AR Programs to show the parent/teacher where the student should be reading in order to take the most in.scaffolding – Bruner.
– The older person will provide new information to the younger person.
What are the three recurring themes of this textbook emphasized for teaching math?
·Creating authentic experiences to help deaf students make connections with mathematical principles and real like experiences·Integrating vocabulary development to help deaf students overcome the limits that language imposes on learning mathematics·Creating opportunities for self-expression by engaging students in talking about mathematics
List the common set of vocabulary used in math for each of these concepts: (Pg. 141)Operations , Comparisons, Shapes, Measurements, Estimation, Temperatures, Finances
1) Operations: add, subtract, multiply, divide, etc.
How do the authors suggest teaching vocabulary that is specialized only for math?
-incorporate the teaching of the word in a language arts activity, such as spelling or writing a story.-Use mathematical terms in notes that you write to the students.
-write the words on cards and place them on the walls with examples of their meanings.-Have the students compile a list of key mathematical words by entering them into a vocabulary book , along with a description and an example of their meaning.-Make a point of using mathematical terms in your own dialogue.-If your students sign, then make ample use of fingerspelling to clearly indicate which mathematical term you are using.-Have the students explain the meaning of mathematical terms to the class. (pg. 141)
Distributive principle: a key concept in estimation: a(b + c) = ab + acFactorial (6! = 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1)Trapezoid (an equilateral in another number)
1) Incorporate the teaching of the word in a language arts activity, such as spelling or writing a story.
2) Use mathematical terms in notes that you write to the student3) Write the words on cards and place them on the walls with examples of their meaning4) Have the students compile a list of key mathematical words by entering them into a vocabulary book along with a description and an example of their meaning.5) If your students sign, then make ample use of fingerspelling to clearly indicate which mathematical term you are using.6) Have the students explain the meaning of mathematical terms to the class7) Teach deaf students how to talk about learning mathematics
The Best Math Field Trip Ever, page 150 – know the math concepts listed and how the students can demonstrate their knowledge to each other following the trip. WHY CAN’T WE JUST DO THIS AS A GROUP? WHY THE NEED TO DIVIDE THE CLASS?
· Counting/measurement· Estimation· Graphing· Comparisons· Problem solving· Patterns/hypothesis· Application/ inference· Demonstration of knowledge: make a presentation to another class or to a group of parents and other adults about the activities conducted during the two field trips.
Discuss the six suggestions for a general education math teacher who has a deaf student in the class.
1) When an interpreter is present in the classroom, learn how you can help facilitate communication with the deaf student, initiating a dialogue about their teaching style with the deaf students.
2) Use charts, overheads, computers, boards, and other instructional tools to provide visual information. 3) Have the deaf student describe the steps used to solve a mathematics problem.4) Make deaf students feel that they are part of the class5) Discuss with deaf students their strategies for completing homework assignments6) Some deaf students may have an itinerant or resource room teacher, or they may be integrated for mathematics classes from their separate classes where they are taught by a teacher of the deaf. Develop a good working relationship with these teachers.
What are the six areas that are typically covered in content standards for PE?
·Body control/management- good posture, positions·Fundamental motor skills- kick, throw, catch, balance·Physical fitness- running, quick change in direction, muscular strength·Sports, games and dance skills- groundwork for future sports teams·Activity-related cognitive skills- learn rules of games·Activity-related social skills- learn to take turns, good sportsmanship
List the 10 tips for the PE teacher.
1) Make sure that deaf students can see you at all times when you are giving directions or performing a demonstration2) Explanations are not enough. SHOW3) Use the buddy system- shoulder tapping- in order to start, stop, and relay information to deaf or HH kids4) Use visual cues such as flags or lights5) Give deaf students individual attention if it is obvious they do not understand6) Ask if rules, skills and directions are understood by all students, have students repeat rules or how to perform activity7) During assessment allow students at least one trial to ensure they understand what is expected of them8) Allow each student to be a “captain” for a day.
9) Have students work in small groups10) Learn to SIGN
Where can deaf students and teachers find information about the Deaf World Games?
·Newspapers and magazines such as the NAD Broadcaster, Deaf Nation, Silent News, Newswaves for Deaf and Hard of Hearing People, and Deaf Life.·Websites; USE Deaf Sports Federation Web site
Review section What Can Teachers Do to Help?
· Introduce deaf students to the potential benefits of extracurricular activities.· Make extracurricular activities a topic of discussion at all IEP meetings· Teach communication and language skills associated with a particular extracurricular activity· Ensure that extracurricular activities are accessible to deaf students· Resolve any transportation concerns· Prepare the coaches and club sponsors for working with a deaf student· Keep in touch with a deaf student’s involvement in an extracurricular activity
Assessment: collecting information in a systematic way
Evaluation: incorporates the concept of assessment but has the specific target of measuring progress or a student’s rate of success.
Accountability: concept of evaluation but adds the idea of responding to a specific audience or authority such as the students, parents, school board, and taxpayers
List the five reasons why we test.
1) To establish eligibility for services2) To determine appropriate placement in school3) To diagnose a problem4) To provide feedback5) To plan instruction: Individualized Educational Plan (IEP) guide the development of instruction.
Validity: measuring what we say we are trying to measure.
Define Content Validity:
Content validity: the degree to which a sample of test items represent the content that the test is designed to measure
Define Face Validity
Face validity: a subjective appraisal of what a test appears to be measuring.
Define Concurrent Validity:
Concurrent validity: covers the relationship between a new test we want to know about and similar established tests of the same domain or type of information. New and established tests are performed at the same time.
Reliability: in testing it is defined as consistency, or the idea that if you did it once, you can do it at the same level a second time.
Define Test-retest reliability:
Test-retest reliability: if a test is given this week and again next week will the students perform at the same level? Aka an estimate of test stability
Define Internal consistency:
Internal consistency: will a particular subset of questions unduly influence performance?
What is the IDEA definition of transition?
The IDEA defined transition services as “a coordinated set of activities for a student, designed within an outcome-oriented process, which promotes movement from school to postschool activities.
Review page 231, Figure 10.1
Flow chart of the processes involved in writing, implementing and evaluating a transition IEP for deaf students.
Define Competitive Employment:
Competitive employment (pg 240) – jobs we think of when we think of work. Jobs that most deaf people will have, open to members of the community that are healthy, qualified individuals.
Define Supported Employment:
Supported employment- (pg 241)- competitive work, individual is usually accompanied by a job coach with heavy supervision which is decreased over time. Work can include maintenance, assembly of parts, grounds-keeping, cleanup of land and buildings, and more.
Define Sheltered Employment:
Sheltered employment (pg 241)- individuals with severe physical or mental disabilities.
Usually piecework basis which can include assembling, packaging, collating, and other manual work that is repetitive and simple.
What is the goal of early intervention?
-To support the family in learning to communicate with their child and the overall process from birth to up to 3 years old.
Review the Joint Committee on Infant Hearing pp23-26 and 28-31
What are the 6 domains to be assessed in all infants according the California State Department of Education Handbook on Assessment And Evaluation in Early Childhood Special Education Programs?
Adaptive domain-Adapting to life and social skills. 2. Cognitive domain- being able to learn from past and novel experiences.
3. Communication domain (verbal and nonverbal communication) 4. Health domain- diagnosis, medication, technology devices 5. Socioemotional- mental health and behavioral interventions, interaction patterns 6. Physical domain- motor abilities (crawl, “get stuff)
What is the purpose of behavior modification in the classroom?
Basically, to keep control over the classroom. Where ‘classroom management’ refers to the entire class, ‘behavior modification’ refers to one student, individually. The intention is still to curve unwanted behavior.
..only behavior modification strives to curve the behavior of one student at a time. Several students may be using different approaches in the classroom, because behavior modification can be used differently among the children in the class (whichever approach seems to work best for each child is fine).
What skills are necessary to live as an independent young adult?
Home Living Skills – personal management, home management, foods and nutrition General Community Skills Training I- Community goods and services, transportation, school as community. Work Based Learning Training- Vocational Skills, work related skills seeking and attaining employment Recreation/Leisure skill training Level 1- Social activities, Independent Leisure Activities, Independent Active Activities, Organized Sports and Group Activities Health and Family Life Skills Training Level l- Personal Health Management, Safety and responding to emergencies, Human development and Family Living
What are the 4 themes of this textbook carried out over all chapters related to school subjectstaught to deaf and hard of hearing students?
authentic experiences, vocabulary development, self-expression and Deaf adults
Text based or bottom up theories of language processing:
Text based or bottom up theories of language processing: -An approach to language development that assumes that processing begins at the phonological and morphological levels and eventually moves to the processing of words in sentences and finally sentences in discourse. In this approach, deaf children’s difficulty in decoding speech is translated to difficulty in reading.
Subject-based theory or Top-down theory:
Subject-based theory or Top-down theory: -An approach to language processing that assumes that the context and prior knowledge is the key to language processing. Deaf children’s difficulty in reading process.
Interactive approach to language development
Interactive approach to language development -An approach where language processing is assisted by elements of both text-based and subject based skills. In other words, good readers use text-based skills to overcome subject-based language-processing limits or vice-versa.