Frank Parsons
Trait and Factor TheoryA person must understand their personal traits, the factors involved in a particular occupation, and examine traits and factors when choosing a career.Father of Career Counseling
Trait and Factor Career Theorists
Frank ParsonsWilliamsonHerr and CramerChartland
(1950)Wrote “How to Counsel Students” as an extension of Parson’s workHis approach to counseling is called Directive Counseling b/c it is very straightforward.

Herr and Cramer
(1996)They created 8 factors that predict success used in trait and factor approaches.aptitudesneeds and interestsvaluesstereotypes & expectationsadjustmentrisk takingaspirations
(1991)Contemporary trait & factor approach.P x E = people and work environments differ in reliable, meaningful, and consistent ways. The greater the congruence between personal characteristics and job requirements, the greater the success.
Personality Career and Vocational Theorists
HollandRoeBordin, Nackman, & Segal
Theory that links personality characteristics and jobs.6 Personality TypesRealisticInvestigativeArtisticSocial EnterprisingConventionalInstrument: Self-Directed Search
Theory based on Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs and child-rearing practices.
Bordin, Nachman & Segal
Career development meets psychoanalysis. Adult occupations are sought for instinctual gratifications that was developed in the first 6 years of life.

Social Learning Career and Vocational Theory
Based on Bandura’s work.A person’s personality and behavioral patterns arise from learning experiences.
Social Learning Theory Identified 4 Factors that Influence Career Decisions:1. Genetic endowment2. Environmental Conditions3. Learning experiences4.

Task approach skills

Accident/Chance Theory
BanduraChance encounters play a role in shaping our lives.2 chance encounters:1. Personal determinants, like values and personal standards2. Social determinants, like environment
Cabral & Salamone
Added to Accident/Chance theory.Chance operates on a continuum of events that are unforseen. People react differently to chance events.
Job Club
Azin & Besalel (1980) developed a club based on a positive reinforcement system. The group was made up of people who had lost their jobs- they would supprt and encourage each other’s progress in job searching
Schein’s Stages and Transitions
Stages of an organizational career.

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1. Preentry- education, preparation2. Entry- recruitment, screening, orientation3.

First regular assignment- person is own their own to complete their first assignment4. Second assignment- repeat 3rd stage5. Granting of Tenure- preparing for exit6. Postexit Stage

Human Capital Theory
Individuals invest in their own education, training, and moving costs in order to achieve a higher-paying job with more prestige
Other Factors that Affect Career Choice
Cultural boundariesClass boundariesSocial factors- SES, home, school and community influencesRole Models and Values
Developmental/Life Span Career Theory
These theories are differentiated by the developmental stages and population groups examined by theorists.

Includes: Super, Havighurst, Schlossberg, Hoppock, Okum, and GInzberg, Ginsberg, Axeland, Herma

Ginzberg, Ginsberg, Axeland, & Herma
Developmental/Life Span Career Theory3 Major periods in the Career Choice Process:1. Fantasy (0-11 yrs)2. Tentative (11-18 yrs)3.

Realistic (18 -into the 20s)

Developed theory with distinct phases. Longitudinal developmental approach
Super’s Life Stages
1. Growth (birth to 14)2. Exploration (14-24)3. Establishment (24-44)4. Maintenance (44-64)5. Decline (64 and up)
Super’s Life Roles

Child2. Student3. Leisurite4. Citizen5.

Worker6. Homemaker

Super’s Career Maturity
Super identified 5 subscales that are different components of career maturity.1. Career planning2. Career exploration3. Decision-making4. World-of-Work information5. Knowledge of preferred occupational group
He was one of the first to propose that one must successfully complete the tasks of 1 stage before moring on to the next stage
He developed Composite Theory and wrote the book “Occupation Information” which is still used today.

She wrote “Working with Adults, Individual, and Career Development”Major focus is on relationships between individual, family, and career development
Decision-Making Career Theories
These theories are based on explaining how individuals make career choices
Emphasized the importance of identifying and clarifying values before considering other options. The System of Interactive Guidance and Information (SIGI) which is a computer program still used today
Gelatt’s Theory is a theory that believes that information processing is the basis for decision-making.Decision-Making model:1. Recognize a need to make a decision2. Collect data3. Use data to determine action4.

Focuses attention on value system5. Evaluates and makes decision

Expectancy Theory
Equation:Expectancy times Valence = MotivationValence is not sufficient to promote action but it must be combined with expectancy in order for a person to move towards a preferred outcome.
Self-Efficacy Model
Those with high self-efficacy visualize success scenarios, while those with low self-efficacy visualize failure scenarios. Such inefficacios thinking weakens motivation.
Berglan’s 8 Steps of Decision Making
1. Define problem2.

Generate alternatives3. Gather information4. Develop information-seeking skills5. Provide useful sources of info6. Process info7. Make plans8. Implement and evaluate plan

Pete & Harren
Describe decision-making in terms of 4 Elements:1.

Objectives2. Choices3. Outcomes4. Attributes

Communication- identify needAnalysis- interrelating problem componentsSynthesis- create alternativesValuing- prioritize alternativesExecution- forming strategy
Eight-Stage Approach
The approach is different because it emphasizes the client’s psychological complexity1. initial assessment2. self-understanding3.

making sense of data4. generate alternatives5. obtaining info6. making the choice7.

making plans8. implementing plan

Conflict Model
Identifies 4 defective patterns of decision-making.1. Unconflicted adherence2. Unconflicted change to new course of action3. Defense avoidance4.


Sources of Career Information
DOT- Dictionary of Occupational TitlesOOH- Occupational Outlook HandbookThe Guide for Occupational ExplorationEnhanced Guide for Occupational ExplorationSOC- Standard Occupational Clarification Manual
Developmental Model of Occupational AspirationsPeople create theori own cognitive maps based on their view of where he or she fits into society.4 Major Stages1. Orientation fo Size and Power (ages3-5)2. Orientation to sex roles (ages 6-8)3. Orientation to social valuations (ages 9-13)4.

Orientation to the unique self (ages 14 and up)