Nowadays, research is required to improve the
conditions of life.  To do any topics of
the research is likely to help society directly or indirectly. Before starting
collecting the data, the researchers need to inform and obtain consent first
from the participants.

The meaning of informed
consent is a main part of the researchers to get to the participants before
doing the research. Informed consent to participants  to make them more aware of the type of
information you want from them, why the information is being sought, what the
purpose it will being carried out, how they are expected to participate in the
study and how it directly effect to themselves and also the coomunity. It is
important things to get consent voluntary and without any pressure to the

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Information elements of the consents to
the participants must be fully noted. Subject should be confidential and
anonymous. The informed consent form must be written in lay language to make
participants easy to understand about the research. The researcher must give
time to answer questions at any time the participants available without any

The elements in the consent must be
voluntary without any pressure. Participants also must be free to withdraw
consent at any time they want.


The consent form must contains  explanation  the aim of the research project, the ways how
the study will being conducted study, the harm and risk, the value and the
beneficial,  privately,  refusal from the study, harsh statement, consent
form ,and the last thing must being sign by participants.


A human
subject is defined as a living person about who will investigator
conducting research get the information. This includes studying of humans through observations or interviews,
psychological, physiological or medical testing or treatment, access to their
personal document or other materials such as the collection and use of their
body organs, tissues or fluids. Access to their details is personally identifiable
confidential information form as a part of an existing published source or

An issues relating to this is the risk of
the research to the participants.

A risk can cause harm to participants,
discomfort or inconvenience. The list of harm include physical harm such as
injury, illness and pain. Psychological harm which is feelings of
worthlessness, distress, guilt, anger or fear. For example, to expose of something
sensitive or embarrassing information, or learning about the genetic
possibility of developing an untreatable disease.

Another issues is to sought the sensitive
information. In seeking this matter, it will make the participants may upset or
embarrass to participate, but if we not ask for it, there is no way to sought
this problem. For most people in this world, the sexual behaviour , drug use,
marital status, salary, age are privacy and personal lifestyle without anyone
should know about that things.  So, in
collecting the data about the sensitive information, the researchers need to
explain carefully and smoothly to the participants. Keep the information privately
and give them enough time without any pressure.

Another issue is to keep all the
information privately.  Do not share the
information we get from the participants with another besides the purpose of
the study. It is unethical when we do so, so be careful. Make sure all confidentiality
is maintained.


Providing some present also one of the
issue in research human subjects. Some of the researchers provide some present
to their participants as appreciation because of their time involving in the
study but some thinking is inducements. It depends to any researchers and
participants about the present.


The major ethical principles that guide
researchers in their works, respect the persons as human dignity, beneficence,
and justice.

Respect for persons. The principle of respect
for human as an individual involves acknowledge the existence of human being
has value for themselves. Researchers must equally regard the value of those are
involving in research. The moral and ethical requirement is based on the
acceptance of the participant’s autonomy. It is the important things and the responsibility
of the researcher to get informed consent from the participants and to maintain
privately on their behalf. From the beginning till the end of the research
process to the capacity of human beings to make their own decision without any
pressure from anybody. When the participants are unable to make their own
decisions or have lack of ability to do so, respect for them by empowering them
when possible, give them time, providing for their protection as necessary and
do not pressure them to do so and so. Researchers should respect the privacy,
confidentiality and cultural norms sensitivities of participants and what the relevant
things at their communities site. Any specific agreement made with the
participants or the community should be accomplished.

The principle of beneficence is between the
potential of good and the risk for participation. The likely benefit of the
research must justify any risks of harm or discomfort to participants or the
wider community. Researchers must have to maximize possible good things and
minimize possible harm in their study. Researchers are responsible for making the
research to minimize the risks of harm or discomfort to participants, explaining
to the participants the potential of benefits and risk, and the welfare of the
participants in the research. Where there is no likely benefit to participants,
the risk danger to participants should be lower than would be ethically
acceptable where there are such likely benefits over there.

The principle of justice involves regard for
human similarity that each person share with others, that means should treat
equally. It means a fair distribution of the burdens and benefits of research
and encompasses fair treatment in recruitment of participants and in the review
of research. Researchers must ensure that the participants are not being exploited
and exposed to any harm either physically or emotionally. Suitable candidates
who may good from participation are not excluded without good cause.