Ø CHEPTER
– 1 INTRODUCTION:

The
fundamental economical strength of any country is mainly measure by its
strength in following diversified area:

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·        
Its dependence in military forces and
different weapons, which are of immense use in operation in three wings. Also
the list of weapons and its production within the country itself plays an
important role.

·        
The living standards of middle order
population is an important parameter which reflects about the economic strength
of the country. It is rather very vital to study the usages of varied modern
gadgets by the general mass. This is mainly focused on the production of the
item commonly required and manufactured within the country.

·        
If such items are imported on regular
basis then it means that the modern technology has not been fully canonical by
the government authorities and channelized in the proper direction. There may
be many different reasons for the policy, some of them may be as follows:      

1.      Insufficient
funds for establishment.

2.      Higher
rate of amount necessity for ‘technology transfer’.

3.      Higher
value of continued training and structural establishment.

4.      Continuous
shortage of supply of raw materials and inadequate storage capacity.

In
such cases any government will select either import of such items / units. This
in turn as resultant phenomena will affect the credit amount of reserves of
foreign funds earned by the country? 

 

These are the different
primary and the most important research explaining the root questions

1)      ‘Why
any country should took in the direction of searching for production within its
boundary?’

2)      ‘How
it can be achieved?’

In order to reside more sound and stable
in essential area of international repute and throat cutting competitions what
are essential criteria as have been depicted as follow:

·        
 Self
sufficiency in production which can cater to the needs of the people and sound
policy that can motivate the manufacturer to promote export. This activity can
earn foreign exchange.

·        
Policy that promotes technology transfer
– training up gradation of technology when required and finally targeting on
self dependability.

·        
Policy that promotes development of
modernization and manufacturing their transference to other countries and hence
capture foreign trend on permanent basis.

·        
Export promotion through quality up
gradation maintaining universal standards and preserves of world class
logistic standards.

These
are the different primary and the most important research explaining the root
questions

3)      ‘Why
any country should took in the direction of searching for production within its
boundary?’

4)      ‘How
it can be achieved?’

In order to remain more sound and stable
in requisite area of international repute and throat cutting competitions what
are essential criteria as have been depicted as follow:

·        
 Self sufficiency in production which can cater
to the requirement of the people and sound policy that can inspire the
manufacturer to promote export. This activity can earn foreign exchange.

·        
Policy that promotes technology transfer
– training up gradation of technology when required and finally targeting on
self dependability.

·        
Policy that promotes development of
modernization and manufacturing their transference to other countries and hence
capture foreign trend on permanent basis.

·        
Export promotion through quality up
gradation maintaining universal standards and maintain of world class logistic
standards.

 

 

 

 

 

Different
Ports in India

Ports are an important form of
infrastructure in Indian economy. They play an important role in facilitating
international trade and commerce by providing an interface between the ocean
transport and land-based transport. India has a broad coastline of about 7517
km spreading on the Western and Eastern shelves of the mainland as well as
along the Islands. It has a well-established port infrastructure covering 12
major ports and 200
minor/intermediate ports (non-major ports), spreading across 9 coastal States. These major ports come
under the area of operation the Central Government, while non-major ports
(minor/ intermediate ports) come under the jurisdiction of the respective State
Governments.

In India,
the concerned authority is the Department
of Shipping,
in the Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport and Highways, which has been
entrusted with the responsibility of formulating and implementing policies and
programmes on port sector. The Department has formulated the ‘National
Maritime Development Programme (NMDP)’ which aims to create world-class infrastructure in ports.

The 12 major
ports serve
as the gateways to India’s international trade by sea, handling over 90% of
foreign trade. They are spread equally on the east coast and west coast of
India. Kolkata port (including Dock complex at Haldia); Para dip port;
Visakhapatnam port; Chennai port; Encores port; and Tuticorin port are on the
east coast. While, Cochin port; New Mangalore port; Mormugao port; Jawaharlal
Nehru port; Mumbai port; and Kandla port are on the west coast. All the major
ports are administered by the ‘Port Trusts’ governed by the provisions of Major
Port Trust Act, 1963 which are autonomous bodies, except the newly ‘ Ennore
Port’ which is run by ‘ Ennore Port Limited’ (registered under the Companies
Act, 1956).

The total
200 non-major ports are in the following States:- Gujarat (42); Maharashtra
(48); Tamil Nadu (15); Karnataka (10); Kerala (17); Andhra Pradesh (12); Odessa
(13); Goa (5); West Bengal (1); Daman and Diu (2); Lakshadweep (10);
Pondicherry (2); and Andaman & Nicobar (23).

Cargo traffic handled
by India’s major ports increased 3.26 per cent year-on-year to 273.96 million tons
(MT) during April-August 2017. In terms of composition of cargo traffic, iron
ore traffic volume rose 29.32 per cent to 18.73 MT, petroleum oil and
lubricants rose 8.36 per cent to 93.14 MT, and container traffic rose 6.44 per
cent.

During 2016-17, major and
non-major ports in India have accomplished a total cargo throughput of 1,133.09
million tons, an increase of 5.7 per cent previous year 2015-16. The growth in
cargo handled at major and non-major ports in 2016-17, were 6.8 per cent and
4.2 per cent, respectively. The share of major ports in the total traffic
handled by Indian ports increased from 56.5 per cent in 2015-16 to 57.2 per
cent in 2016-17.

The country’s major
ports handled a combined traffic volume of 647.76 million tonnes during
2016-17, registering an annual growth rate of 6.80 per cent. The major ports
recorded the highest ever capacity addition of 100.37 MT in 2016-17, thereby
raising the total capacity to 1065 MT per annum, as against a capacity of
965.36 MT per annum in 2015-16.

The capacity addition
at ports is expected to grow at a CAGR of 5-6 per cent till 2022, thereby
adding 275-325 MT of capacity.

Under the Sagarmala
Programme, the government has envisioned a total of 189 projects for modernization
of ports involving an investment of Rs 1.42 trillion (US$ 22 billion by the
year 2035.

Ministry of Shipping
has set a target capacity of over 3,130 MMT by 2020, which would be driven by
participation from the private sector. Non-major ports are expected to generate
over 50 per cent of this capacity.

India’s cargo traffic
handled by ports is expected to reach 1,695 million metric tons by 2021-22, as
against 643 million in 2014-15, according to a report of the National Transport
Development Policy Committee.

Within the ports
sector, projects worth an investment of US$ 10 billion have been identified and
will be awarded over the coming five years.

Exchange Rate Used: INR
1 = US$ 0.015 as on October 06, 2017

In order
to improve efficiency, productivity and quality of services as well as to bring
in competitiveness in port services, the port sector has been thrown open to
private sector participation. Such private investments are mainly on the Build,
Operate and Transfer (BOT) basis and include various areas of port functioning,
such as leasing out existing assets of the port, construction/ creation of
additional assets, construction of cargo handling berths, container terminals
and warehousing facilities, installation of cargo handling equipments,
construction of dry docks and ship-repair facilities, leasing of floating
crafts, pilot age and captive facilities for port based industries, etc.
Foreign direct investment (FDI) up to 100 per cent is permitted for
construction and maintenance of ports and harbors.

Joint
venture formations between a major port and a foreign port, between major port
and minor port(s) without tender, as well as between major port and
company(ies) following tender route are permitted by the Government. The
measure is aimed at facilitating port trusts to attract new technology,
introduce better managerial process, expedite implementation of schemes, foster
strategic alliance with minor ports for creation of optimal port infrastructure
and enhance confidence of private sector in funding ports.

Major investment and development projects
in the port sector are:-

Re-development of Bulk Terminal
as a Container Terminal project at Jawaharlal Nehru Port developed on BOT
basis by Maersk A/S and CONCOR.
International Container Transshipment
Terminal at Cochin Port developed on BOT basis by M/s Dubai Ports
International (DPI).
Container Terminal Project at
Kandla Port on BOT basis by M/s. ABG Heavy Industries.
Development of Container
Terminal at Kandla Port on BOT basis.
Stage I of the Inner Harbour
Deepening project at Visakhapatnam Port.
Deepening Projects at JNPT,
Mumbai, Ennore, Tuticorin and Paradip Ports; etc.

Thus,
Indian ports are indispensable in the development of country’s maritime trade
and economy, owing to India’s current share in global merchandise trade at
around 0.80%. They are not only considered as trade gateways, but also integral
components of the global logistics and transportation chain.

Ø Research
Work

·        
These
are the different topics to some extend and the best possible ways we have tried
to justify in our research work.

·        
Most
probably all the research components essential fulfilling the requirements of
the objective have been justified in our work through different research
articles

·        
We
define them as sequential order of publication:

       These articles reflect on:

(i)                
Primary
collection of data and tabular presentation then our work most to research  for deriving statistical measures like
averages of first order , second order and application of testing of
hypothesis.

(ii)              
Initially
we find mean on yearly basis for each year.

(iii)            
We
also represent the same by drawing Bar chart in some cases Histogram. Also this
helps comparison and prediction of further movements.

 

Ø CHAPTER
– 2: Export data of frozen food

 

·        
The study of these chapter aims at
drawing statistical inferences based on using past official records taken from
different reliable sources. We have selected frozen foods the base of study.
Exploring half-yearly export data of 
last three years showing export quantity from three different main ports
of western zone and a group of some ports from southern India  to three different countries; we have focused
on export  of frozen foods. The important
point of the study lies in assessing the fact what we arrive at by implementing
two ways ANOVA in the given situation.

 

·        
2.1
Purpose of Study: The main purpose of the study is to
assess the claim of equality of population means in two primary variables (1 Export from three selected major
ports, 2 Export to three different
countries) in the case we have concerned data entries (amount/ quantity) in the
different  tables referring to export of frozen
food in different years. The data distribution becomes clearer by graphical
presentation.  We assume that their
population variances are same.

 

·        
2.2
Pedagogy: Three years primary data regarding the two
particular items on hand were extracted from official records regarding export
from different ports and to different countries. Some salient features are
described below.

1 Calculation on
Quarterly Basis for each year (Port wise and Country wise)

2 Calculation of Mean
and Standard deviation

3 A Graphical
Presentation

3 B Preparing tools for
applying Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

·        
2.3 Conclusion: This has remained a time consuming
exercise but at the end we have arrived at the best conclusion. The study over
a three successive years of export from three different ports to three
different countries has revealed a fact, by and large, that the increase in
demand of food  from different countries
and export corporation choosing export destination for  export have a little impact over the long
time span. In a way this reflects that (1) Inclination to purchase imported
items by the different countries have declined or nearly remains constant
and/or (2) either the steady demand or less profitability reflects weak
marketing strategies or poor attention towards quality control and maintenance
in the export bound items. In some cases it indicates additional government
control imposed on export or import as the case may be. Each case arising their
from, as discussed above, becomes case study in future and can be indicative
for amendments in further business activities that follow.

 

Ø CHEPTER
-3: Linear trend,
forecast, and stability assessment regarding to some export bound food
items. 

 

·        
3.1
Abstract: It is well known that statistics and its
mathematically derived and established methods are always reliable and applicable
to explore past records in a way that many future decisions derived from, are
very important for future planning for finance, marketing, and planning of
production. In this paper the past export records of three successive years
have been analyzed and studied to give better insight for decision making.

 

           The content has been divided in two parts. The
first part in which linear regression techniques help us derive future trends
and the second one in which the coefficient of variations is used to measure
consistency in export units of  foods
from different ports accounted in the records, are both of ultimate importance
in term of future projection..

 

·        
Assumptions:

The
followings are the assumptions logically accepted to be followed in the
procedure of    handling current export
data.

 

(1)   The
demand pattern of different countries for importing considered in the data
remains within a normal limit of fluctuation.

(2)   The
export plans of different vendors exporting from selected ports to selected
destinations (as the orders are received) do not change on a large scale.

·        
3.2
Conclusion:

The
contain of these paper which use the past records of three years in export
related          data of Particular food
items has focused attention to two major conclusion that the manufacturing
units Which are in the vicinity of the port of export has wider scope to better
scopes of export and their  Stability in
export area either remains steady or increases over a period of time.