Ø CHEPTER– 1 INTRODUCTION:Thefundamental economical strength of any country is mainly measure by itsstrength in following diversified area:· Its dependence in military forces anddifferent weapons, which are of immense use in operation in three wings.
Alsothe list of weapons and its production within the country itself plays animportant role.· The living standards of middle orderpopulation is an important parameter which reflects about the economic strengthof the country. It is rather very vital to study the usages of varied moderngadgets by the general mass. This is mainly focused on the production of theitem commonly required and manufactured within the country.· If such items are imported on regularbasis then it means that the modern technology has not been fully canonical bythe government authorities and channelized in the proper direction. There maybe many different reasons for the policy, some of them may be as follows: 1. Insufficientfunds for establishment.
2. Higherrate of amount necessity for ‘technology transfer’.3. Highervalue of continued training and structural establishment.4. Continuousshortage of supply of raw materials and inadequate storage capacity.Insuch cases any government will select either import of such items / units.
Thisin turn as resultant phenomena will affect the credit amount of reserves offoreign funds earned by the country? These are the differentprimary and the most important research explaining the root questions 1) ‘Whyany country should took in the direction of searching for production within itsboundary?’2) ‘Howit can be achieved?’In order to reside more sound and stablein essential area of international repute and throat cutting competitions whatare essential criteria as have been depicted as follow: · Selfsufficiency in production which can cater to the needs of the people and soundpolicy that can motivate the manufacturer to promote export. This activity canearn foreign exchange.· Policy that promotes technology transfer– training up gradation of technology when required and finally targeting onself dependability.· Policy that promotes development ofmodernization and manufacturing their transference to other countries and hencecapture foreign trend on permanent basis.· Export promotion through quality upgradation maintaining universal standards and preserves of world classlogistic standards.Theseare the different primary and the most important research explaining the rootquestions 3) ‘Whyany country should took in the direction of searching for production within itsboundary?’4) ‘Howit can be achieved?’In order to remain more sound and stablein requisite area of international repute and throat cutting competitions whatare essential criteria as have been depicted as follow: · Self sufficiency in production which can caterto the requirement of the people and sound policy that can inspire themanufacturer to promote export. This activity can earn foreign exchange.· Policy that promotes technology transfer– training up gradation of technology when required and finally targeting onself dependability.
· Policy that promotes development ofmodernization and manufacturing their transference to other countries and hencecapture foreign trend on permanent basis.· Export promotion through quality upgradation maintaining universal standards and maintain of world class logisticstandards. DifferentPorts in India Ports are an important form ofinfrastructure in Indian economy. They play an important role in facilitatinginternational trade and commerce by providing an interface between the oceantransport and land-based transport. India has a broad coastline of about 7517km spreading on the Western and Eastern shelves of the mainland as well asalong the Islands. It has a well-established port infrastructure covering 12major ports and 200minor/intermediate ports (non-major ports), spreading across 9 coastal States.
These major ports comeunder the area of operation the Central Government, while non-major ports(minor/ intermediate ports) come under the jurisdiction of the respective StateGovernments.In India,the concerned authority is the Departmentof Shipping,in the Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport and Highways, which has beenentrusted with the responsibility of formulating and implementing policies andprogrammes on port sector. The Department has formulated the ‘NationalMaritime Development Programme (NMDP)’ which aims to create world-class infrastructure in ports. The 12 majorports serveas the gateways to India’s international trade by sea, handling over 90% offoreign trade. They are spread equally on the east coast and west coast ofIndia. Kolkata port (including Dock complex at Haldia); Para dip port;Visakhapatnam port; Chennai port; Encores port; and Tuticorin port are on theeast coast.
While, Cochin port; New Mangalore port; Mormugao port; JawaharlalNehru port; Mumbai port; and Kandla port are on the west coast. All the majorports are administered by the ‘Port Trusts’ governed by the provisions of MajorPort Trust Act, 1963 which are autonomous bodies, except the newly ‘ EnnorePort’ which is run by ‘ Ennore Port Limited’ (registered under the CompaniesAct, 1956).The total200 non-major ports are in the following States:- Gujarat (42); Maharashtra(48); Tamil Nadu (15); Karnataka (10); Kerala (17); Andhra Pradesh (12); Odessa(13); Goa (5); West Bengal (1); Daman and Diu (2); Lakshadweep (10);Pondicherry (2); and Andaman & Nicobar (23).Cargo traffic handledby India’s major ports increased 3.
26 per cent year-on-year to 273.96 million tons(MT) during April-August 2017. In terms of composition of cargo traffic, ironore traffic volume rose 29.
32 per cent to 18.73 MT, petroleum oil andlubricants rose 8.36 per cent to 93.14 MT, and container traffic rose 6.
44 percent.During 2016-17, major andnon-major ports in India have accomplished a total cargo throughput of 1,133.09million tons, an increase of 5.7 per cent previous year 2015-16.
The growth incargo handled at major and non-major ports in 2016-17, were 6.8 per cent and4.2 per cent, respectively.
The share of major ports in the total traffichandled by Indian ports increased from 56.5 per cent in 2015-16 to 57.2 percent in 2016-17.The country’s majorports handled a combined traffic volume of 647.76 million tonnes during2016-17, registering an annual growth rate of 6.80 per cent. The major portsrecorded the highest ever capacity addition of 100.
37 MT in 2016-17, therebyraising the total capacity to 1065 MT per annum, as against a capacity of965.36 MT per annum in 2015-16.The capacity additionat ports is expected to grow at a CAGR of 5-6 per cent till 2022, therebyadding 275-325 MT of capacity.Under the SagarmalaProgramme, the government has envisioned a total of 189 projects for modernizationof ports involving an investment of Rs 1.42 trillion (US$ 22 billion by theyear 2035.Ministry of Shippinghas set a target capacity of over 3,130 MMT by 2020, which would be driven byparticipation from the private sector.
Non-major ports are expected to generateover 50 per cent of this capacity.India’s cargo traffichandled by ports is expected to reach 1,695 million metric tons by 2021-22, asagainst 643 million in 2014-15, according to a report of the National TransportDevelopment Policy Committee.Within the portssector, projects worth an investment of US$ 10 billion have been identified andwill be awarded over the coming five years.Exchange Rate Used: INR1 = US$ 0.015 as on October 06, 2017In orderto improve efficiency, productivity and quality of services as well as to bringin competitiveness in port services, the port sector has been thrown open toprivate sector participation. Such private investments are mainly on the Build,Operate and Transfer (BOT) basis and include various areas of port functioning,such as leasing out existing assets of the port, construction/ creation ofadditional assets, construction of cargo handling berths, container terminalsand warehousing facilities, installation of cargo handling equipments,construction of dry docks and ship-repair facilities, leasing of floatingcrafts, pilot age and captive facilities for port based industries, etc.Foreign direct investment (FDI) up to 100 per cent is permitted forconstruction and maintenance of ports and harbors.
Jointventure formations between a major port and a foreign port, between major portand minor port(s) without tender, as well as between major port andcompany(ies) following tender route are permitted by the Government. Themeasure is aimed at facilitating port trusts to attract new technology,introduce better managerial process, expedite implementation of schemes, fosterstrategic alliance with minor ports for creation of optimal port infrastructureand enhance confidence of private sector in funding ports. Major investment and development projectsin the port sector are:- Re-development of Bulk Terminal as a Container Terminal project at Jawaharlal Nehru Port developed on BOT basis by Maersk A/S and CONCOR. International Container Transshipment Terminal at Cochin Port developed on BOT basis by M/s Dubai Ports International (DPI). Container Terminal Project at Kandla Port on BOT basis by M/s.
ABG Heavy Industries. Development of Container Terminal at Kandla Port on BOT basis. Stage I of the Inner Harbour Deepening project at Visakhapatnam Port. Deepening Projects at JNPT, Mumbai, Ennore, Tuticorin and Paradip Ports; etc.
Thus,Indian ports are indispensable in the development of country’s maritime tradeand economy, owing to India’s current share in global merchandise trade ataround 0.80%. They are not only considered as trade gateways, but also integralcomponents of the global logistics and transportation chain.Ø ResearchWork· Theseare the different topics to some extend and the best possible ways we have triedto justify in our research work.· Mostprobably all the research components essential fulfilling the requirements ofthe objective have been justified in our work through different researcharticles· Wedefine them as sequential order of publication: These articles reflect on:(i) Primarycollection of data and tabular presentation then our work most to research for deriving statistical measures likeaverages of first order , second order and application of testing ofhypothesis.(ii) Initiallywe find mean on yearly basis for each year.(iii) Wealso represent the same by drawing Bar chart in some cases Histogram. Also thishelps comparison and prediction of further movements.
Ø CHAPTER– 2: Export data of frozen food · The study of these chapter aims atdrawing statistical inferences based on using past official records taken fromdifferent reliable sources. We have selected frozen foods the base of study.Exploring half-yearly export data of last three years showing export quantity from three different main portsof western zone and a group of some ports from southern India to three different countries; we have focusedon export of frozen foods. The importantpoint of the study lies in assessing the fact what we arrive at by implementingtwo ways ANOVA in the given situation. · 2.1Purpose of Study: The main purpose of the study is toassess the claim of equality of population means in two primary variables (1 Export from three selected majorports, 2 Export to three differentcountries) in the case we have concerned data entries (amount/ quantity) in thedifferent tables referring to export of frozenfood in different years.
The data distribution becomes clearer by graphicalpresentation. We assume that theirpopulation variances are same. · 2.2Pedagogy: Three years primary data regarding the twoparticular items on hand were extracted from official records regarding exportfrom different ports and to different countries. Some salient features aredescribed below.1 Calculation onQuarterly Basis for each year (Port wise and Country wise)2 Calculation of Meanand Standard deviation3 A GraphicalPresentation3 B Preparing tools forapplying Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)· 2.3 Conclusion: This has remained a time consumingexercise but at the end we have arrived at the best conclusion.
The study overa three successive years of export from three different ports to threedifferent countries has revealed a fact, by and large, that the increase indemand of food from different countriesand export corporation choosing export destination for export have a little impact over the longtime span. In a way this reflects that (1) Inclination to purchase importeditems by the different countries have declined or nearly remains constantand/or (2) either the steady demand or less profitability reflects weakmarketing strategies or poor attention towards quality control and maintenancein the export bound items. In some cases it indicates additional governmentcontrol imposed on export or import as the case may be. Each case arising theirfrom, as discussed above, becomes case study in future and can be indicativefor amendments in further business activities that follow. Ø CHEPTER-3: Linear trend,forecast, and stability assessment regarding to some export bound fooditems.
· 3.1Abstract: It is well known that statistics and itsmathematically derived and established methods are always reliable and applicableto explore past records in a way that many future decisions derived from, arevery important for future planning for finance, marketing, and planning ofproduction. In this paper the past export records of three successive yearshave been analyzed and studied to give better insight for decision making. The content has been divided in two parts. Thefirst part in which linear regression techniques help us derive future trendsand the second one in which the coefficient of variations is used to measureconsistency in export units of foodsfrom different ports accounted in the records, are both of ultimate importancein term of future projection.. · Assumptions:Thefollowings are the assumptions logically accepted to be followed in theprocedure of handling current exportdata. (1) Thedemand pattern of different countries for importing considered in the dataremains within a normal limit of fluctuation.
(2) Theexport plans of different vendors exporting from selected ports to selecteddestinations (as the orders are received) do not change on a large scale. · 3.2Conclusion:Thecontain of these paper which use the past records of three years in exportrelated data of Particular fooditems has focused attention to two major conclusion that the manufacturingunits Which are in the vicinity of the port of export has wider scope to betterscopes of export and their Stability inexport area either remains steady or increases over a period of time.