On theother hand, the Creative Construction Theory has another way of instructing teachingand learning. Being influenced by the Creative Construction Theory, StephenKrashen, a linguist and educational researcher emeritus at the University ofSouthern California, proposed the application of the Creative ConstructionTheory: The Monitor Model. He claims that “we ‘learn’ on the other hand throughconscious attention to form and rule learning” (Lightbown, P., & Spada, N.M.
, 2013, 106). He argues that humans learning language by “acquiring” whichmeans learning and using language unconsciously. For instance, people can just learnlanguages by talking and listening to native speakers without memorizing thecontext. People use rules or patterns they learned before as an editor or “monitor”(Lightbown, P.
, & Spada, N. M., 2013, 104), so they can adjust and polishthe mistakes according to previous experience. The importance of “comprehensibleinput (i + 1)” should be emphasized in the classroom.
It is an effective wayfor teachers to adapt context and audio-visual information as thecomprehensible input so that students can form their universal rule in languageacquisition. Another hypothesis from Krashen is the “affective filter.” Heclaims that if students encounter lots of unnecessary inputs, they tend to createan affective filter in the mind, such as anxiety, frustration or lack ofinterest in learning. Teachers should give a moderate amount of input so thatstudents can grasp the rule of language without pressure. In conclusion, no matter in the BehavioristTheory or the Creative Construction Theory, teaching and learning a secondlanguage should involve the formation of both types of knowledge: explicit andimplicit, which mean knowledge about both what is correct and the skill of unconsciouslyproducing language. Although these theories still cannot fully explain thepatterns or rule of language acquisition, they really contribute to theunderstanding of the process.