On the
other hand, the Creative Construction Theory has another way of instructing teaching
and learning. Being influenced by the Creative Construction Theory, Stephen
Krashen, a linguist and educational researcher emeritus at the University of
Southern California, proposed the application of the Creative Construction
Theory: The Monitor Model. He claims that “we ‘learn’ on the other hand through
conscious attention to form and rule learning” (Lightbown, P., & Spada, N.

M., 2013, 106). He argues that humans learning language by “acquiring” which
means learning and using language unconsciously. For instance, people can just learn
languages by talking and listening to native speakers without memorizing the
context. People use rules or patterns they learned before as an editor or “monitor”
(Lightbown, P., & Spada, N. M., 2013, 104), so they can adjust and polish
the mistakes according to previous experience. The importance of “comprehensible
input (i + 1)” should be emphasized in the classroom. It is an effective way
for teachers to adapt context and audio-visual information as the
comprehensible input so that students can form their universal rule in language
acquisition. Another hypothesis from Krashen is the “affective filter.” He
claims that if students encounter lots of unnecessary inputs, they tend to create
an affective filter in the mind, such as anxiety, frustration or lack of
interest in learning. Teachers should give a moderate amount of input so that
students can grasp the rule of language without pressure.

 In conclusion, no matter in the Behaviorist
Theory or the Creative Construction Theory, teaching and learning a second
language should involve the formation of both types of knowledge: explicit and
implicit, which mean knowledge about both what is correct and the skill of unconsciously
producing language. Although these theories still cannot fully explain the
patterns or rule of language acquisition, they really contribute to the
understanding of the process.