On January 1, 1863, President Lincoln issued the
Emancipation Proclamation, which in theory made all slaves in Confederate
states free. Of course, the South didn’t willingly obey this, and slavery would
not cease until the end of the war. The civil war  led to the Division of Virginia. In 1863,
citizens in the western portions of Virginia, who opposed secession, petitioned
the U.S. Government for statehood. West Virginia became the 35th state on June
20th, 1863. The Civil War was by far the deadliest war in American history.
Well over 600,000 people died in combat, from disease, or as a result of the
Civil War. The Civil War led to some level of Reconstruction. The period of
time after the Civil War is known as Reconstruction. During this difficult era,
the Southern states were gradually admitted back into the Union and the areas
destroyed during the war were rebuilt. There was also the Scalawags and
Carpetbaggers. The ruined south presented a wide range of economic and
political opportunities for ambitious Northerners and Southerners. Scalawags
and Carpetbaggers were slang terms used to describe such opportunists. The
Civil War led to the Jim Crow Laws. The result of the Civil War left many in
the South bitter toward the integration of African Americans into society. Jim
Crow Laws were those meant to punish and ostracize African-Americans in a
“legal” manner. Long term effects of Civil War led to the growth of industry,
made the Government more powerful while also re-uniting the nation.

The first battle of the Civil War was the Battle of Fort
Sumter in April 1861. Confederate forces surrounded the Union island fort off
the coast of Charleston, South Carolina, and after two days of bombardment,
captured the fort from Union soldiers. The first major land battle of the war
was the First Battle of Bull Run, fought outside of Washington, D.C. in July
1861. It was an early Confederate victory, and it was there that Thomas Jackson
received the nickname ‘Stonewall’ because the men under his command stood their
ground like a ‘stone wall.’  The Civil
War saw many new technological advances, one of which was the introduction of
iron-clad warships. At the Battle of Hampton Roads in March 1862, the Union
ironclad Monitor fought the Confederate iron Virginia (known as the Merrimack)
off the coast of Virginia. Neither ship was able to inflict significant damage
upon the other, so the battle ended as a draw.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Tone of the he underlying cause of the war was sectionalism.
We can think of sectionalism as a particular region uniting in opposition
against another. Throughout the 19th century, the Northern U.S. and the
Southern U.S. drifted away from one another. Instead of citizens identifying
themselves as ‘Americans,’ many people chose to see themselves firstly as
‘Northerners’ or ‘Southerners.’ Cultural differences and economic differences
fueled sectionalism in antebellum America. One significant ideological
disagreement between the North and South was over the issue of slavery. The
Southern economy was agrarian and relied heavily on enslaved Africans, whereas
the Northern economy was industrial. The North was anti-slavery, and the South
was pro-slavery. The South felt threatened by the possibility of abolition.
Many in the South perceived the North as trying to destroy their way of life.
Manifest Destiny was also influential. Many Americans believed that it was
America’s destiny to extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. With
America’s westward expansion, the question of whether or not western
territories and states would allow slavery came to the forefront. Slavery in
new territories and states became a particularly heated debate and created
further tension between the North and South. The trigger that finally sparked
the civil war in America was the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860. The
Southern states had talked about secession before, but now with the election of
Lincoln, a man opposed to slavery and committed to preserving the union of
states, they were ready to act. In March 1861, even before Lincoln took office,
seven states seceded to form a new nation, the Confederate States of America.
The Compromise of 1850 which was authored by Henry Clay was important to civil
war. It was a compromise in the true sense of the word. California became a
free state, whereas New Mexico and Utah territories became open to slavery. The
compromise ended slavery in D.C but and the Fugitive Slave Law was
strengthened. The Missouri Compromise was also important factor. According to
the deal thought of by Henry Clay, if the southern states agreed to the
admission of Maine as a free state, Missouri would be admitted as a slave
state. In addition, all lands acquired in the Louisiana Purchase north of 36°
30? N latitude would be free. The Nat Turner Rebellion was also a cause of
civil war. This bloody rebellion led by a Virginia slave resulted in new laws
forbidding the education of slaves, and further restricting their rights. The
Wilmot Proviso also played a factor.The passage of the Wilmot Proviso, which prevented
the introduction of slavery into lands acquired after the Mexican-American War,
further polarized northern and southern politicians on the issue of slavery.
The Kansas Nebraska Act might have also been a cause of civil war. As the
nation pushed close to war over the issues of states’ rights and slavery, the
Kansas Nebraska Act resulted in mass violence in what came to be known as
“Bleeding Kansas.”  The Ostend Manifesto
also had a slight causation on the civil war. In a bungled attempt to annex
Cuba from Spain, Northern abolitionists became suspicious of a conspiracy to
extend the reach of slavery, which further soured relations between the North
and South. Another cause might have been Dred Scott Decision. In a landmark
ruling, the United States Supreme Court ruled in essence that slaves had no
rights as United States citizens, even if they had previously lived in Free
states. John Brown Rebellion also created social unrest. John Brown was a
radical abolitionist who tried to start a slave rebellion against slavery by
seizing a federal arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Virginia. Harriet Tubman and the
Underground Railroad also played a part in civil unrest. For many years prior
to the Civil War, Northerners helped Southern slaves escape captivity via a
secret network of trails, tunnels, and caravans known as the Underground
Railroad.