On January 1, 1863, President Lincoln issued theEmancipation Proclamation, which in theory made all slaves in Confederatestates free.

Of course, the South didn’t willingly obey this, and slavery wouldnot cease until the end of the war. The civil war  led to the Division of Virginia. In 1863,citizens in the western portions of Virginia, who opposed secession, petitionedthe U.

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S. Government for statehood. West Virginia became the 35th state on June20th, 1863. The Civil War was by far the deadliest war in American history.Well over 600,000 people died in combat, from disease, or as a result of theCivil War. The Civil War led to some level of Reconstruction.

The period oftime after the Civil War is known as Reconstruction. During this difficult era,the Southern states were gradually admitted back into the Union and the areasdestroyed during the war were rebuilt. There was also the Scalawags andCarpetbaggers.

The ruined south presented a wide range of economic andpolitical opportunities for ambitious Northerners and Southerners. Scalawagsand Carpetbaggers were slang terms used to describe such opportunists. TheCivil War led to the Jim Crow Laws. The result of the Civil War left many inthe South bitter toward the integration of African Americans into society.

JimCrow Laws were those meant to punish and ostracize African-Americans in a”legal” manner. Long term effects of Civil War led to the growth of industry,made the Government more powerful while also re-uniting the nation.The first battle of the Civil War was the Battle of FortSumter in April 1861. Confederate forces surrounded the Union island fort offthe coast of Charleston, South Carolina, and after two days of bombardment,captured the fort from Union soldiers. The first major land battle of the warwas the First Battle of Bull Run, fought outside of Washington, D.C. in July1861. It was an early Confederate victory, and it was there that Thomas Jacksonreceived the nickname ‘Stonewall’ because the men under his command stood theirground like a ‘stone wall.

‘  The CivilWar saw many new technological advances, one of which was the introduction ofiron-clad warships. At the Battle of Hampton Roads in March 1862, the Unionironclad Monitor fought the Confederate iron Virginia (known as the Merrimack)off the coast of Virginia. Neither ship was able to inflict significant damageupon the other, so the battle ended as a draw.Tone of the he underlying cause of the war was sectionalism.We can think of sectionalism as a particular region uniting in oppositionagainst another. Throughout the 19th century, the Northern U.S. and theSouthern U.

S. drifted away from one another. Instead of citizens identifyingthemselves as ‘Americans,’ many people chose to see themselves firstly as’Northerners’ or ‘Southerners.’ Cultural differences and economic differencesfueled sectionalism in antebellum America. One significant ideologicaldisagreement between the North and South was over the issue of slavery. TheSouthern economy was agrarian and relied heavily on enslaved Africans, whereasthe Northern economy was industrial. The North was anti-slavery, and the Southwas pro-slavery. The South felt threatened by the possibility of abolition.

Many in the South perceived the North as trying to destroy their way of life.Manifest Destiny was also influential. Many Americans believed that it wasAmerica’s destiny to extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. WithAmerica’s westward expansion, the question of whether or not westernterritories and states would allow slavery came to the forefront.

Slavery innew territories and states became a particularly heated debate and createdfurther tension between the North and South. The trigger that finally sparkedthe civil war in America was the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860. TheSouthern states had talked about secession before, but now with the election ofLincoln, a man opposed to slavery and committed to preserving the union ofstates, they were ready to act. In March 1861, even before Lincoln took office,seven states seceded to form a new nation, the Confederate States of America.

The Compromise of 1850 which was authored by Henry Clay was important to civilwar. It was a compromise in the true sense of the word. California became afree state, whereas New Mexico and Utah territories became open to slavery. Thecompromise ended slavery in D.C but and the Fugitive Slave Law wasstrengthened.

The Missouri Compromise was also important factor. According tothe deal thought of by Henry Clay, if the southern states agreed to theadmission of Maine as a free state, Missouri would be admitted as a slavestate. In addition, all lands acquired in the Louisiana Purchase north of 36°30? N latitude would be free. The Nat Turner Rebellion was also a cause ofcivil war. This bloody rebellion led by a Virginia slave resulted in new lawsforbidding the education of slaves, and further restricting their rights. TheWilmot Proviso also played a factor.

The passage of the Wilmot Proviso, which preventedthe introduction of slavery into lands acquired after the Mexican-American War,further polarized northern and southern politicians on the issue of slavery.The Kansas Nebraska Act might have also been a cause of civil war. As thenation pushed close to war over the issues of states’ rights and slavery, theKansas Nebraska Act resulted in mass violence in what came to be known as”Bleeding Kansas.”  The Ostend Manifestoalso had a slight causation on the civil war. In a bungled attempt to annexCuba from Spain, Northern abolitionists became suspicious of a conspiracy toextend the reach of slavery, which further soured relations between the Northand South. Another cause might have been Dred Scott Decision. In a landmarkruling, the United States Supreme Court ruled in essence that slaves had norights as United States citizens, even if they had previously lived in Freestates.

John Brown Rebellion also created social unrest. John Brown was aradical abolitionist who tried to start a slave rebellion against slavery byseizing a federal arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Virginia. Harriet Tubman and theUnderground Railroad also played a part in civil unrest.

For many years priorto the Civil War, Northerners helped Southern slaves escape captivity via asecret network of trails, tunnels, and caravans known as the UndergroundRailroad.