What are the 2 categories that VPNs are divided in to?
– Remote access VPNs – When a person uses a VPN client application to establish a secure tunnel across an ISP to an enterprise network. – Site-to-site VPN –  When 2 different endpoints connect over a public network.
Explain what the qos pre-classify command does in regards to service policies.

The qos pre-classify command configures the IOS to make a temporary copy of the IP packet before it is encapsulated or encrypted so that the service policy on the egress interface can do its classification based on the original (inner) IP packet fields rather than the encapsulating (outer) IP packet header.
How do tunnel interfaces interact with service policies applied on physical interface they emanate?
When you apply a QoS service policy to a physical interface where one or more tunnels emanate, the service policy classifies IP packets based on the post-tunnel IP header fields. However, when you apply a QoS service policy to a tunnel interface, the service policy performs classification on the pre-tunnel IP header (inner packet).
What type of interfaces are able to use the qos pre-classify  command?
This command is restricted to tunnel interfaces, virtual templates, and crypto maps, and it is not available on any other interface types.
Explain how Control Plane Policing (CoPP) is used on a Cisco device.
Control plane policing allows you to configure a QoS filter that manages the traffic flow of control plane packets.

What’s the difference between data plane traffic and control and management plane traffic?
Data plane traffic is traffic that enters a router, and the destination of this type of traffic is elsewhere other than the router itself. Control and management plane traffic is traffic that is indeed for the router, like routing updates, management traffic, and keepalives.
What command is used to specify the maximum bandwidth usage by a traffic class?
police bps burst-normal burst-max conform-action action exceed-action action violate-action action
What must be enabled on a router before you can enable AutoQoS?
You must enable Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF) on the interface where AutoQoS is intended to be enabled, because AutoQoS relies on NBAR for discovery, and NBR needs CEF.
What is the first step when enabling AutoQoS?
The first step is the AutoQoS discovery process, which uses the NBAR protocol.

The longer the auto-discovery process runs, the more accurate the results will be. The default period id 3 days.

What does the second step of enabling AutoQoS entail?
In Step 2, AutoQoS used the results from the auto-discovery step to generate templates and install them on router interfaces. Templates are the basis for generation of MQC class maps and policy maps.

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After the policy maps are generated, AutoQoS applies them to the intended interfaces (using service-policy)

What command enables auto-discovery on an interface?
auto discovery qos [trust]
What must be done with the bandwidth on an interface before AutoQoS can be enabled?
The bandwidth on an interface must be configured; before enabling AutoQoS.
How do you enable the AutoQoS discovery process on a subinterface or on an interface with an existing service policy?
AutoQoS auto-discovery is not supported on a subinterface, and it is not supported on an interface that has a policy attached to it already
What command allows you to view the auto-discovery results?
show auto discovery qos
What command enables AutoQoS on an interface upon completion of the discovery step?
auto qos [voip [trust] [fr-atm]]
What command is applied on a Cisco switch interface that is assumed to be connected to a trusted device?
auto qos voip trust
What command tells a CIsco switch that a Cisco IP phone is attached toa specific port?
auto qos voip cisco-phone
What command displays the CoS-to-DSCP mapping on a Catalyst switch?
show mls qos maps