OutlineHistoryof Web DatabaseWhatis a Web DatabaseMethodsof IndexingDataManagement Systems(DDMS)Examplesof Data Management SystemsWhystudy about Web DatabasesChallengesassociated working with DDMS’sConclusionReferencesOrganizationlarge and small have realized on the need to use web databases to facilitatetheir activities.

Web database is used to create website polls, feedback forms,client and inventory lists. They can be used at a personal level ranging fromstoring personal email accounts to a home inventory to personal websitesanalytics. The history and development of web database are traced back to the18th century (Kopal, 2015). For instance, in the Old Syria, historic cavepaintings and clay tablets preserved in the library of Ugarit are considered tobe the first documented mention of a comprehensive effort to store data. There,was found a larger amount of clay tablets together with diplomatic texts andliterary works separately. Therefore, the means to store data was throughdocumentation; however, that data was not sorted. The effort to sort data isconfirmed in the Roman Forum Library. This history is not enough to trace theorigin of web databases.

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The emergence of index card is considered as thepredecessor of computer databases. The index card is associated with naturalistCarl Linnaeus who introduced a system to sort his records in the 18th centuryAD. Each species in his study was put on a separate sheet of paper making itpossible for him to organize his records easily.Indexcards were handled by human beings, and this was very restrictive andcumbersome. Due to this, there was the need to improve on index cards, andelectromechanical data processing came to be. In the year 1890, an Americanstatistician by the name Herman Hollerith created a counting machine that wasin turn used by the public authorities to facilitate census activity. Thecounting machine was the first electromechanical data processor.

The machineused punched cards to store information. In 1911, Hollerith’s firm togetherwith other three companies formed a merger, and The Computing TabulatingRecording Corporation was established. The company manufactured a wide range ofproducts, including employee time-keeping systems, weighing scales, automaticmeat slicers and punched card equipment. However, the company later changed itsname to International Business Machines (IBM) in 1924.IBMwas on the forefront in the improvement of electromechanical processing in thenext half-century. For example, in 1951, IBM Company manufactured the UNIVACmachine following a request from the authorities which they used to record theSocial Security number of employees in U.S.

A. The UNIVAC was the firstmass-produced digital computer for commercial use. The advancement concerningweb databases did not stop with the emergence of UNIVAC, in the year 1960,Common Business Language abbreviated COBOL was established following the effortof using one universal computer programming language. Development ofprogramming language has been associated with the transition from the magnetictapes to magnetic disks which allowed direct access to data. This laid thefoundation of the modern web databases existing today. The language used was toborrow terms from English since it was understood by many.In1961, the first data warehouse was introduced by Charles Bachman of GeneralElectric Company, and his idea of data management was adopted to create theconcept of database systems by the Database Task Committee, a committee formedto promote innovation and advancement of database systems.

The committeedescribed the architecture of network database systems by introducing conceptssuch as data integrity, data model, database schema and atomicity. During thisera, the database systems were divided into two models: network andhierarchical database models. However, the two models had several drawbacks;for example, the hierarchical database concept was restricted to when modelingreality. Edgar F. Codd, an employee of IBM, realized the con, and in 1970, he camewith an idea of the rational database model. The rational database conceptincluded basic operations for working with data. These processes are dataselection, data projection, union of data and Cartesian product and difference.Theprimary role played by database system was storing structured data and theintroduction of algebra relational calculus and terms that can be understoodled to the creation of Structured English Query Language (SEQUEL).

The languagewas promoted to version two leading to the creation of structured querylanguage (SQL) which was approved in 1987 and established as ISO and ANSIstandard. SEQUEL success inspired the development of other languages such asQUEL. The Ingress project of the University of California and language QUEL ledto the development of an object-relational database model, known as Postgress.

The Postgress and SQL were connected when the QUEL query language interpreterwas replaced by SQL language interpreter in the year 1995, and a year later itwas renamed to PostgreSQL language. In the 1990’s the structured object modelreceived and communication uses the Object Query Language built over the SQL-92standard and the Object Definition Language which is based on the appliedprogramming languages. In the 2000’s attention of software developers shiftedto the need of creating unstructured databases. As a result, unstructureddatabases called NoSQL emerged. The boom of unstructured databases isassociated with Google.

It presented its database proposal called big BigTabledesigned for large amounts of data. Amazon inspired this proposal by offeringits unstructured database called Dynamo. These proposals of databases laterbecame the basis of today used NoSQL databases.Aweb database can be defined as a system designed to be managed and accessedthrough the internet. A web database can also mean an organized listing of webpages in one medium (ntc.

hosting, 2017). Web databases can be compared to acard catalog found in the library that guides library users to locate books onthe library shelves. The database usually holds the surrogate or selectedpieces such as the headings and titles for every web page. The surrogate is theunique identifier of an object in the database. The creation of surrogates isknown as indexing, and each web database does it differently. Typically, webdatabases can hold surrogates for anywhere from one to thirty million webpages. Web database programs also have the search interface, which is the boxwhere users type words into or the list of directories an individual can use tosearch for data stored on the computer. Through the search engine, the usertype in any terminology he/she wishes and will search the database to match theterms keyed in.

On the other hand, the directory has pages organized bysubject, and are navigated by selecting things off the directory. A goodexample of a directory is the Yellow Page, which has business telephone numbersarranged by business category rather than alphabetically. Each web database hasa different indexing method and a separate search interface to suit the needsof users.Thereare three significant methods of indexing used in web database creation; theyare full-text, keyword and human. Full-text indexing involves putting everyword on the web page into the database for searching. Full-text indexing helpsusers to find every example of a reference to exact name or terminology.

Examples of full-databases are AltaVista, Google, and Open Text. In humanindexing, the user surveys the page and determines very few key phrases thatdescribe it. This allows the user to find a good start of works about a certaintopic-assuming that the topic was chosen by the human as something that definesthe page. Human indexing develops Directory-based web databases. A good exampleis Yahoo. The last method of indexing is keyword indexing, where only thecritical word and phrases are put into the database for searching. This allowsthe users to search for more general subjects and, therefore, the results aremore accurate. However, if a term is only mentioned once or twice on a page, itwill not be included in the web database.

Examples of keyword indexing areLycos and Excite.Howdo web database select which pages are indexed? This is a question that lingersin any user of web databases. Since there is no centralized internet computerfed with data, there is no one place where these services can learn about newpages. Therefore, many services use automated programs referred to as spidersor robots that travel from site to site looking for new WWW pages. Mostly, therobots go to the “What is New” or the “What is Hot” pages and use them forindexing the popular sites that are accessed by the majority of web databaseusers.

Other robots or spiders methodically examine every link leading to a webpage and every link leading from the web page. With this, three classes of webdatabase are created-those that look at all WWW pages, those that examinepopular WWW pages, and those that inspect the quality of web pages. How resultsare presented is very important, and two concepts are involved in this processof result presentation, that is, Relevancy ranking and Abstracts.

Relevancyrankings refer to how the documents are listed in order by relevance.Concerning user search results, the computer ranks all the documents thatcontain his/her search term, and list the ones it thinks are the most relevantfirst. The search results can be many as possible, and the user should befocused on the first twenty to forty. Therefore, users should ensure they areusing the correct search terms to enhance the ranking of the first fortyresults. On the other hand, there might be pages that are listed yet saynothing about the user topic. Such is referred to as abstracts and are usuallynot the same as the database entry used by the computer to search. The abstractnormally is shorter than the database entry, and this can lead to frustrationsince the user has to load the actual page to know why the search program feelsthe page is relevant to his/her search.Alarge amount of data used by companies need to be organized and arrangedcorrectly, to see this possible, organizations use a database management system(DBMS), a software tool that facilitates the organization of data in a database(TechTarget, 2017).

  Thus, the centralrole of database management system is to store and transform data intoinformation to support in decision-making. A DDMS is made up of three elements:The physical database which refers to the collection of files that contain thedata, the second feature is the database engine, which is the software thatmakes it possible to access and modify the contents of the database. The lastelement is the database scheme referring to the specification of the logicalstructure of the data stored in the database. The specific functions of DDMSare: one is to offer security rules to determine access rights of the users.Second, it has a data dictionary which describes the data. Third, DDMS providesa back-up and recovery process to back-up the data and regularly and recoverdata is a problem occurs. Lastly, DDMS allow concurrent access, in other words,the same database can be used by multiple users.

The use of DDMS has seenorganizations reduce chances of data redundancy and inconsistency and, thus, improvingthe quality of data.Thereare various types of DDMS and organizations are guided by multiple factors inselecting the one that fulfills its activities (Rasbin, 2017). One of thesefactors is to ensure the DDMS chosen integrates with other technologies used bya certain company. Second, the DDMS should be robust, scalable and easy to use,this promoting efficiency of business activities of a company. Third, the costof getting started-concerning the buying and installation of web database softwares should be one which a company can afford to sponsor. Lastly, companiesusually select databases that are easy to operate. Examples of DDMS are MySQLCommunity Server, Microsoft Access, Microsoft SQL Server Express, OracleExpress Edition, and DB2 Express-C. MySQLis preferred by organizations because the community version is acquired forfree and is a great platform to begin learning on.

There are also commercialversions of MySQL for large-scale commercial applications. Initially, MySQL wasavailable for on small set of platforms, such as Linux. However, currently, youcan put MySQL on anything, including Mac and windows. The MySQL Workbench toolhas a good graphical user interface to design and works with database tablesvisually. MySQL Workbench is usually intuitive, helping any user to learnsyntax created by the tool when the task is designed because it has decent helpdocumentation.MicrosoftAccess is not acquired for free as the case for MySQL. However, it is a part ofMicrosoft Office; thus many developers have it. Microsoft access allows usersto design a table or a task visually and then observe the syntax that getscreated.

Microsoft Access does not have two separate installations-one for theDDMS and one for the design tool-because it comes as a single application,unlike other soft wares which have separate installations. However, MicrosoftAccess has various limitations; for instance, it is not flexible on whichoperating system it should e installed on. Another limitation is that it is notclear on how many concurrent connections it can handle before the performancedegrades. Therefore, Microsoft Access is ideal for learning, and low trafficwebsites become it becomes slow and unsuitable for websites that have heaviertraffic.Theother three DDMS that is, Microsoft SQL Server Express, Oracle Express Edition,and DB2 Express-C are the most dominant and popular DDMS’s used by bigcompanies today.

They each have separate server applications and design toolsthat must be installed. The three are similar in tools and functionality. Thenotable difference lies in the syntax of their SQL; thus, they are not listedin any particular order.

Thepurpose of studying web database can vary regarding the type of data being fedinto the web database software. For instance, the purpose of studying webdatabase can be to analyze and model requirements and limitations needed todesign and implement a web data system. Second, is to understand how to createand implement a web database that accommodates all the specified requirementsand shortcomings based on modeling or requirements specification. Third, is tobe able to explain the complex web database application concepts and relevant,thorough reports of professional standards and technical presentations. Lastly,is to be able to work in different forms regarding web database, that is, toform, manage, and produce successful outcomes.

 The significance of studying web database includes, one can be able tocreate a web database that has enough storage to accommodate all the data, andas a result, the speed of web database software is increased. Second, those whoknow how to use web database should encourage the organization to embrace theuse of different languages when designing the web database. Finally, web databaseprograms should be monitored on a regular basis to ensure they are up to do.Usersof web databases face various challenges that are important to address so thatthey can make the correct decision concerning what type of database system theywill select to facilitate their activities (MiCORE Solutions, 2017). The firstproblem is limits on scalability; all software has scalability and resourceusage restrictions, including database servers.

Companies concerned abouttransaction processing capacity know that cataloging components, databasearchitecture, operating systems, and hardware configuration all affectscalability. Although decentralized data management offer various benefits suchrestricting unwarranted users due to the security it offers, it presentschallenges regarding how the data will be distributed? What decentralizationmethod should be used? And what is the proper degree of decentralization? Lackof centralized knowledge about the entire database system used is a majorchallenge in designing and managing a distributed database. Mostcompanies have realized the importance of installing high-profile data securitysoftware to safeguard their database. Databases are hidden workhorse of manycompanies’ IT systems because they store critical public and private data. Thesecurity software is expensive with, and a typical one can cost an organizationabout 4 million, not to mention the loss of reputation and goodwill.

This highcost has seen many companies opt for cheap security software putting a risk totheir data.Inconclusion, the history of web database can be traced back to the 18th centuryAD when the old Syria used clay tablets to document information regardingdiplomatic activities. The golden age of web database came to place when databasesoftware manufactures realized on the need to use one common language that isunderstandable. A web database is an organized listing of web pages. Companies,big and small, are using the database to organize their data to ease access.  ReferencesKopal,O. (2015).

History and trends in the development of databases. Retrieved from      http://www.web-integration.info/en/blog/history-and-trends-in-the-development-of-databases/MiCORESolutions, (2017). Database management challenges.

Retrieved from      http://www.micoresolutions.com/top-database-management-challenges/ntc.hosting,(2017). What is a database? Retrieved from       https://www.ntchosting.

com/encyclopedia/databases/database/Rasbin,(2017). Some examples of database management system (DBMS) with explanation.       Retrieved from https://rasbin.wordpress.com/2012/05/17/some-examples-of-database-management-system-dbms-with-explanation/TechTarget,(2017). Database management system (DBMS).

Retrieved from      http://searchsqlserver.techtarget.com/definition/database-management-system