p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 11.0px ‘Helvetica Neue’; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000}p.p2 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 11.0px ‘Helvetica Neue’; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 12.0px}li.li1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 11.0px ‘Helvetica Neue’; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000}span.s1 {font-kerning: none}span.s2 {text-decoration: underline ; font-kerning: none}span.Apple-tab-span {white-space:pre}ul.ul1 {list-style-type: disc}Cerebrumlargest, frontmost part of brain; in evolutionary terms, it is the newest partleft and right hemispheres, separated by a fissureorigin of conscious thoughtcerebral tissue folded into gyri, with depressions called sulci Frontal Lobehigher cognitive functionslast part of brain to reach maturityvoluntary movementscontrols impulses and considers future consequenceslong term memoriesunderstanding languageactivates dopamine (major neurotransmitter in reward and motivation)regulates attention Parietal Lobebehind frontal lobeprocess visual & sensory informationtouch sensationperception of visual sensesreading, writing, mathspeechspatial orientationcognition & information processing Occipital Lobesits at back of brain, behind frontal & parietal lobesnewest part (evolutionarily)dedicated to processing visual informationmapping out the space around youcolor determinationrelates vision and memory (familiar sights)size, depth, distanceTemporal Lobesits below temples on either side of brain, crosses both hemispheresoften considered a pair of lobesforms long-term, conscious memoriesinterpreting visual stimuli and recognizing objectshearing & understanding speechhelps control homeostasisspeech production Corpus Callosumbundle of fibers in center of braincontains ~200 million axonswhite mattercommunication across both of the brain hemispheresvisioneye movementtactile location (helps us locate an area of touch)balances attention & arousalCerebellum”hindbrain”sits at back of skull, behind occipital lobevital for controlling voluntary actionspositioning of bodymaintains muscle tonecoordinates fine movements (playing video games, etc.)Limbic Systemimportant for controlling emotioninstincts, self-preservationmoodformation of memoriesThalamusrelay of nervous impulses to the appropriate location in cerebral cortex, where they are experienced as a sensation of pain, temperature, etc.control state of consciousness (awakeness/sleep)Hypothalamussynthesizes releasing hormones, stimulates pituitary gland to release endocrine hormonesconnects endocrine system with the nervous systemregulates metabolic processes and homeostasis (ex: temperature control)coordinates autonomic nervous systemAmygdalaintense emotions (fear!)processing emotional memoryHippocampusdeclarative memory (recalling events, facts, etc.)conversion of short-term memories to long-term memoryinvolvement in mental illnesseshippocampus appears shrunken in schizophrenic patientsspatial navigationBrain Stemposterior end of braincontinuous with spinal cordregulates cardiac, respiratory functionsmaintain consciousnessregulates subconscious functions (heart rate, breathing)motor & sensory innervation to face and neckMidbrainsits atop pons and medullavision & hearingarousalregulates body temperaturePonssits beneath the midbraincontrols switch from inhalation to exhalationfacial expressions & sensationposture controlswallowing & bladder controlMedulla Oblongataregulates autonomic functionscontrols sneezing, coughing, vomiting, & reflex centerscontrols blood pressurehelps control circulatory system by detecting abnormalities in chemical composition of blood (can change pH if too acidic, etc.)