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DNA has been a major importance in the scientific world. For decades, scientists from various areas have been researching and dedicating their lives for the study of DNA and many have won prizes and awards for their work.
The discovery of DNA has been a long journey, it all started in 1866 when Gregor Mendel, a monk, published his study of the hereditary traits of pea plants and how some traits are passed from parents to offspring. Mendel had used his experiment to create the Laws of Hereditary which are the Law of Segregation, the Law of Independent Assortment, and the Law of Dominance. In 1869, a Swiss physiologist chemist by the name Freidrich Miescher found something acidic and different while studying white blood cells and its nucleus and named it nuclein, which is really DNA. In 1911, Thomas Hunt experimented with his students with fruit flies and discovered about general linkage and the chromosomal theory of hereditary. Later, in 1928, Frederick Griffith discovered the process of transformation when he injected mice with a harmless bacteria and another bacteria that gave the mice pneumonia and killed them. Taking strains of the killer bacteria to the harmless had him believe in transformation where the non-fatal bacteria was forever changed to the fatal bacteria for the fatal bacteria’s gene changed the non-fatal bacteria. In the 1940s, George Beedle and Edward Tatum experimented with bread mold and discovered that one gene connected with one enzyme. In 1944, Oswald Avery, Colin  MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty performed experiments that identified the substance in Griffith’s work was actually DNA, not protein that changed the properties of cells. Early 1950s, Erwin Chargoff discovers that the base pairs are equal to each other so adenine and thymine are the same to cytosine and guanine. Few years later in 1952, Martha Chase and Alfred Hershey conducted experiments with bacteriophage, a virus, to find out if Avery’s work was supported and if genes really did come from DNA, the experiment supported Avery’s conclusion and it opened a pathway to that all living cells’ DNA comes from genes. During 1953, Francis Crick ad James Watson published their idea of what a DNA molecule looks like. The molecule appeared to be a double helix with base pairs and this description became the first accurate model of the DNA molecule. During the 2000s, a project to find out where all the genes were and the purpose of each specific genes began. This project was called the Human Genome Project and in 2003, the Human Genome Project finished and Francis Collins and Craig Venter announced and published the sequence and map of the human genome.

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