A model case incorporates all defining attributes which exemplify all the attributes relevant to the concept (Walker and Avant, 2005). The example below is a model case for the concept of pain management. Mr. M was diagnosed with a pain syndrome and admitted for pain management. A holistic examination was administered to the patient to determine the intensity of the pain, past history of experiences of pain and previous efforts at pain modulation. The healthcare professional discussed and reached an agreement with the patient on the goals for pain modulation and the patient’s response to it.

Information was given to the patient on the multimodal approaches used which included hydrotherapy, relaxation procedures and opioid therapy. The patient was educated on how to apply these strategies and upon agreeing with the patient, the treatment regime was coordinated by professional. The multidisciplinary team held constant consultations with the patient and members of the team which enabled the patient to perform the multidisciplinary approaches alone.

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During this case, constant participative consultations between the patient and the multidisciplinary team aided the choice of multimodal approach to use to modulate pain. Self efficacy was achieved by the patient because relevant information given to the patient assisted him to be independent and as a result improving the quality of life (Larsen, 2007). Borderline case This includes cases similar to the concept of study to ensure clarity (Cheng, Foster, and Huang, n. d).

Assessment was conducted to a patient who had been admitted with arthritis and multimodal approaches to modulate pain agreed upon and the information was passed to the patient. The healthcare professionals confirmed to the patient that they know how to deal with the pain and told to use the prescribed strategies and discharged after three weeks. Upon discharge, the patient stopped using these strategies and later taken back to the hospital. Multiprofessional and multimodal efforts to modulate the pain are evident in this case, but it lacks participatory relationship with the patient.

The patient was merely reduce to a recipient instead of getting involved in the pain modulation process and as a result the goals of self-efficacy were not realized because the patient neither participated in identifying the goals, nor given any relevant information on the usage of these strategies. These factors may have played a significant role in the non-compliance (Larsen, 2007). Contrary case This is a case which presents an idea which is not the main concept (Cheng, Foster, and Huang, n. d). A patient had an arthritis attack on the spinal cord.

After discussions between the patient’s consultant and nurse, the patient was told that he would just have to bear the pain because nothing could be done. The patient became infuriated arguing that the consultant and the nurse misunderstood his description of the pain. This increased his pain. This case proves contrary to what pain management is. Efforts to pain modulation and response were not evident; it lacked multiprofessional teamwork, strategies to pain management were not provided, there were no participatory relationship between professionals and the patient and therefore it lacked efforts to encourage self-efficacy.

The patient’s fury seemed to have worsened the situation, contrary to what the concept entails (Larsen, 2007). Related case A related case is an instance of the concept similar to the concept in question but lacks the necessary defining attributes (Walker and Avant, 2005). A patient was diagnosed with pain syndrome and decided to visit a nurse. After consultations with the nurse, the patient was told that the pain could be treated without medication. The initially refused claiming the nurse had not done enough to establish the extent of the pain.

However, after reasoning with nurse, the nurse proposed alternatives to medication such as a good sleep to relieve the pain. As a result, the patient was relieved of the pain and achieved self efficacy (Larsen, 2007). Invented case An invented case employs the same idea as the concept in study but outside the scope of the concept (Walker and Avant, 2005). A patient was diagnosed with an HIV Aids and admitted to a hospital. After a series of medical the patient told that this kind of illness could only be prolonged because it could not be completely cured.

The cure for this illness was therefore beyond the scope of this illness. The patient initially became traumatized but after a serious of psychological counseling the patient managed to recover and was given alternatives on how to use retroviral drugs. The patient was discharge and given instructions on how to use these drugs while away from hospital. From then, the patient managed to attain self efficacy and improve his health (Larsen, 2007). Social context The concept of pain is often a common aspect in healthcare and nursing contexts by patients and nurses.

The concern revolves around questions such as when a situation is considered to be a pain, are there antecedents and consequences associated with pain, how should pain be managed. The health social contexts such as dyad involving healthcare professional and patient, healthcare professional and provider, are complex and must therefore be taken into consideration while making necessary decisions about pain management. The patient requires healthcare professionals to believe that they are in pain. It is the patient’s duty to describe their own pain.

However, this may present a barrier in the pain management process because of their unwillingness to report cases of pain. Healthcare professionals must therefore have the necessary knowledge and education to address the social contexts in order to improve their pain management capabilities. The consequence of pain management process is therefore to improve the health standard of the patient. Anxiety is a closed related concept to the concept of pain and therefore reducing anxiety becomes a consequence of pain management (Larsen, 2007).