Muscle cells generate forces that produce motion called __________
movement
A response to a stimulus is manifested by a wave of excitation is known as ____________
conductivity
Chief function of nerve cells
conductivity
All cells take in and use nutrients and other substances from their surroundings – this is known as?
metabolic absorption
All cells can rid themselves of waste products from the metabolic breakdown of nutrients – this is known as?
excretion
Cells absorbing oxygen is known as ?
respiration
cell respiration occurs during _______
mitochondria
tissue growth occurs as cells enlarge and __________ themselves.
reproduce
____________ atrophy is seen in the muscles of paralyzed limbs?
denervation
A decrease in workload, use, pressure, blood supply, nutrition, hormonal stiumation and nervous stimulation result in ___________ atrophy
pathological
Patients confined to bed for a prolonged periods show __________ atrophy.
skeletal muscle atrophy aka disuse atrophy
___________ increases the amount of functioning by increasing cell size, and the affected organ.
hypertrophy
Increase in the number of cells of a tissue or organ is known as ?
hyperplasia
____________ hyperplasia enables certain organs to regenerate after a loss of substance.
Compensatory
__________ is deranged cell growth that results in cells that vary in size,shape, and appearance of mature cells.
dysplasia
Example of metaplasia?
bronchial
_________ denies cells of oxygen?
hypoxia
_____________ can result from inadequate oxygen in the air, respiratory disease, decreased blood flow due to circulatory disease, anemia or the inability of the cells to use oxygen.
hypoxia
The most common cause of hypoxia is?
ischemia which results from reduced blood supply
what are the types of necrosis?
coagulative, fat and gangrenous
This necrosis occurs primarily in the kidneys, heart and adrenal glands and usually results in hypoxia caused by severe ischemia?
coagulative
This necrosis is found in the breast, pancreas and other abdominal structures and is a specific cellular dissolution caused by lipases?
fat
This necrosis refers to the death of tissue usually in considerable masses with putrefaction.
gangrenous
This gangrene is usually due to coagulative necrosis?
dry
This gangrene is caused by the bacterial infection of injured tissue by a species of Clostridium?
gas
This gangrene develops when neutrophils invade the site and cause liquefactive necrosis?
wet
Depressed conductivity in heart, muscle cramping, paresthesias, nausea, diarrhea, associated with metabolic acidosis are signs of?
hyperkalemia.
cardiac irritability, dysrhythmias, vomiting, paralytic ileus, thirst are signs of?
hypokalemia
decreased neuromuscular excitability, muscle weakness, CNS depression, stupor to coma, increased risk of bone fracture, vomiting, constipation and kidney stones are signs of?
hypercalcemia or hyperphosphatemia
Increased neuromuscular excitability, skeletal muscle cramps, laryngospasm, asphyxiation and death are signs of?
hypocalcemia
Anorexia, weakness, osteomalacias, muscle weakness, tremors, seizures, coma, anemia, bleeding disorders, leukocteic alterations are signs of?
hypophosphatemia
skeletal muscle depression, muscle weakness, hypotension, bradycardia and respirtory depression are signs of?
hypermagnesemia
hypocalcemia and hypokalemia, neuromuscular irritability, convulsions, tachycardia, and hypertension are signs of?
hypomagnesemia
Normal ranges for potassium?
3.5 to 4.5 mEq/L
Normal range for calcium?
8.6 to 10.5 mg/dL
Normal reading for phosphate?
2.5 to 4.5 mg/dL
Normal reading for magnesium?
1.8 to 2.4 mEq/L