Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet 1800’s
Taught deaf children to communicate via finger spelling and gestures.

Helped open 1st school for the deaf.

Samuel Gridley Howe 1800’s
Believed disabled children could learn and be educated and not just held in custodial care.
Dorothea Dix 1800’s
Founded mental illness hospitals. Founded schools for blind and minimal cerebral dysfunctional persons. Advocated government role in caring for mentally ill.
Louis Braille 1800’s
Demonstrated blind children could learn via alternative methods. Simplified concept of raised dots and published book on braille.

Alexander Graham Bell 1800’s
Had idea that hard of hearing children could be helped via amplification and learn to speak.
Alfred Binet 1800’s
Research showed intelligence could be measured and improved with education. Partner with Theodore Simon to create Binet-Simon Scale. First to use mental age as a measurement for intelligence. Term IQ was suggested by Lewis Terman
Hellen Keller 1900’s
Despite being blind and deaf, she became leading figure campaigning for human rights and world peace.
Anna Freud 1900’s
Applied psychoanalysis to children who had emotional problems.

Alfred Strauss, 1900’s
Research showed some children had unique patterns of learning disabilities and required special training. In the 1940’s LD were shown to be different from disabled.
Samuel Orton, 1900’s
Neurologist identified dyslexia.
Anna Gillingham 1900’s
The Ortho-Gillingham Identified 3 ways of learning: motor memory, auditory and intelligence. Emphasized teaching approach vs method which allowed for different materials. The Ortho-Gillingham multisensory approach is still used today.
Grace Fernarld 1900’s
Special Educator pioneered Visual Auditory Kinesthetic Tactile (VAKT) instruction. Fernald Technique centers on teaching sight words one at a time holistically using all four input modalities.

Samuel Kirk 1960’s
Used the term LD to differentiate students from low achievers or mentally disabled.
John Kennedy 1960’s
Increased scientific investigation via federal mandate. Sister was mentally disabled.
Marianne Frostig 1960-1970’s
Multidimensional Interdisciplinary Assessment tests to determine child’s developmental status in motor skills and perception. Approach was discredited but her work maintained interest in special education.
Newell Kephert 1960-1970’s
Pioneer in field of “perceptual motor theories” for LD children. Wrote “The slow learner in the classroom”.

William Cruickshank 1970’s
Researcher on perceptual motor theory. Wrote books on educational planning for children with brain injuries.
Lloyd Dunn, 1960-1970’s
Advocated placement of mildly disabled children in regular classes. Use societal factors to determine the education needed. Assessment needed to be nondiscriminatory.

Evelyn Deno 1970’s
Proposed concept of cascading services favoring individualized student centered education. Blueprint for continuum of placement options that is part of current law.
James Gallagher 1970’s
Advocate for “Special Education Contract” to safeguard incorrect permanent placement in exceptional education. Ideas formed foundation for IEP and due process hearing.