general idea concerning how we think about ourselves; developed through actions, reflection, and interactions with others – especially in relation to expectations of self and others; influenced by our previous behaviors and performances and expectations of others toward ourselves
how we feel about or value ourselves; measures the components of self-concept
Piaget stages of cognitive development
Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, Formal Operational
interpreting an experience in terms of current ways of understanding
change in cognitive structures that produces a corresponding behavioral change; when a child tries the old schema on a new object and molded it to fit the new object
Sensorimotor level of cognitive development
Birth – 2 years; thoughts based primarily on senses and motor abilities
Preoperational stage of cognitive development
Age 2 – 7; children think mainly in symbolic terms- manipulating symbols used in creative play in the absence of the actual objects involved
Concrete operational stage of cognitive development
Age 7- 11; children think in logical terms; children need hands on, concrete experiences to manipulate symbols logically that are performed within the context of concrete situations
Formal operational stage of cognitive development
Age 11 – 15; children develop abstract and hypothetical thinking; use logical operations in the abstract rather than concrete
students construct their own knowledge when they interact in social ways
Kohlberg’s six stages of moral development
Preconventional level (Stages 1 and 2)Conventional level (Stages 3 and 4)Postconventional level (Stages 5 and 6) – few people reach these two stages
Preconventional level of moral development
egocentric point of view; concrete individualistic perspective; children 4 – 10 respond mainly to reward and punishment
Conventional level of moral development
maintrnance of positive relations and the rules of society; children conform to the rules and wishes of society to preserve social order
Postconventional stages of moral development
reasoning from an abstract point of view and possessing ideals where precedence takes over particular societal laws; individuals act according to an enlightened conscience
Montessori’s three stages of the process of learning
1) introduction to a concept through lesson, book, etc2)develop understanding through work, experimentation, and creation3) possessing understanding – demonstrated by passing test, ability to teach another, or express it with ease
Montessori’s belief of the environment
students learn more from environment and other children than the teacher; teacher should prepare and facilitate environment which nurtures multiple intelligences and learning styles
Dewey’s educational approach
educations should foster individually, free activity, and learning through experience; cooperative learning; use of fine arts in learning; should prepare children for active participation in the life of the community; education as a social process
Brumer’s educational approach
learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based on their current and past knowledge; discovery learning; sprialing curriculum; inquiry teaching
zone of proximal development
time span where full development depends on full social interaction either with teacher guidance or peer collaboration
teacher breaks a complex task into smaller tasks, models the desired learning strategy or task, provides support as students learn to do the task, and the gradually shift responsibility to the student
Types of diversity
dialect, immigrant status, socio-economic backgrounds, discipline problems, ethnicity, race, creed/religion, language, culture, social styles, learning styles, scholastic abilities, challenges, lifestyles
English-immersion instruction
entirely in English; teachers deliver lessons in simplified English so that the student learn English and academic subjects
English as a second language instruction
similar to English immersion but with some support for individuals using their native languages; special class each day to work strictly on English skills
Transitional bilingual education
in the student’s native language, but there is also instruction each day on developing English skills
Two-way bilingual education (dual-immersion or dual-language)
given in two languages to the student; goal in to have student become proficient in both languages; team-teaching
Visual Learning
learn through seeing; watch the teacher’s body language and facial expressions; learn best from visual displays, diagrams, illustrated books, overheads, videos, flipcharts, and handouts; they take detailed notes
Auditory Learning
learn through listening; verbal lectures, class discussions, and listening to what others have to say; read-alouds; listening to a tape recorder or audio program is helpful
Tactile Learning
learn through touching; learn best through hands-on; need to actively explore physical world
Kinesthetic Learning
learn through moving and doing; need activity and exploration; hard for them to sit still
Concrete experiences
being involved in a new experience; learn well through field trips, lab work, or interactive computer games
Reflective observation
watching others or developing observations about their own experience; writing in journals or learning logs
Abstract conceptualization
creating theories to explain observations; lectures, papers, and text work
Active experimentation
using theories to solve problems and make decisions; simulations, case-studies, and active homework
Gardner’s eight multiple intelligences
verbal/linguistic, logical-mathematical, visual/spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist
Verbal/linguistic intelligence
demonstrate highly developed auditory skills and sensitivity to the meaning and order of wordsLearn by: saying, hearing, seeing wordsMotivated by: books, recordings, writing, and conversation
Logical-mathematical intelligence
demonstrate ability to handle chains of reasoning and recognizing patterns and orderLearn by: explore relationships, patterns, and computing arithmetic in their headsMotivate by: science kits, games (chess), brainteasers
Visual-spatial intelligence
think in mental pictures and images; able to perceive world accurately Learn: visually with images, pictures, colorMotivated by: films, videos, diagrams, maps, charts, cameras, telescopes, 3D building supplies
Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence
athletically giftedLearn by: bodily sensations, gestures, body language, touching, movingMotivated by: role play, dramatic improvisation, creative movement, physical activity
Musical intelligence
sensitive to pitch, melody, rhythm, and tones; often sing, hum, or whistle to themselves; sensitive to nonverbal sounds (crickets, birds)Learn: through melody and rhythm, study effectively with music in backgroundMotivated by: records, tapes, and musical instruments
Interpersonal intelligence
understand people and relationships; “people people;” often leaders; know how to organize, communicate, mediate, and manipulate; many friendsMotivate by: peer-group opportunities, school and community activities
Intrapersonal intelligence
ability to assess their own emotional life; powerful sense of self and shy away from groups to work aloneLearn: isolated, alone Motivated by: private space and independence
Naturalist intelligence
observe nature and discrete patterns and trends; recognize species, environmental changesLearn by: collecting and cataloging, outdoors,
Differences between sexes
Girls – memorization; evaluate their own learning; perform well in reading activities but lack the self-confidence in mathematics; express emotions with wordsBoys – elaboration strategies; assistance in planning, organizing, and structuring their learning; perform well in mathematics but lack confidence in reading activities; express emotions through action
4MAT Curriculum Development Model
allows teachers to create approaches that reflect the four different learning styles, eight multiple intelligences, and the individual differences of the students; cyclical; Why? What? How? If?
Why questions in 4MAT
initiate discussion, thought, and motivation; reinforce brainstorming, speaking, understanding and listening to other ideas, building off of those ideas
What activities in 4MAT
foster adapting the ideas and observations into concepts through analytical thinking; reinforce classification, conceptualizations, and development of patterns and connections
How thinking in 4MAT
leads to reasoning and building common sense and practicing with trial and error; reinforce manipulation of ideas into concrete proposals, experimentation, and association of concepts with realistic entities
If questions of 4MAT
development and deduction of “if” questions to help students become aware of their thought process and their ability to teach others; reinforce collaboration, adaptation of ideas with other ideas, and exploration of their intuition
statement that addresses behaviors and knowledge and is observable, detectable, and measurable
Teacher-directed learning activities
demonstration, guided practice, mastery learning, independent practice, questioning, study skills, modeling, whole group discussion, and transitions
Madeline Hunter’s direct instruction model
outline of lesson: objectives, standards of performance and expectations, anticipatory set or advance organizer, the teaching (input, modeling and demo, direction giving, and checking for understanding), guided practice and monitoring, closure, independent practice
David Ausbel’s advance organizer
organizer is introduced before the learning begins and are presented at a higher level of abstraction; bridges between previous knowledge and new learning material
Student-centered learning activities
collaborative learning, cooperative learning groups, concept development, discovery learning, independent study, inquiry, interdisciplinary and integrated study, project-based learning, simulations, units
Bloom’s Taxonomy
cognitive domain, affective domain, and psychomotor domain
Cognitive Domain
knowledge and development of attitude and skills
Affective Domain
growth in feelings, emotional areas, and attitudes
Psychomotor Domain
manual or physical skills
Taxonomy of Cognitive Domain
1. Knowledge – recall of facts and terms2.

Comprehension – understand fact and terms and can interpret meaning of material3. Application – ability to use learned concepts and principals in new situations4. Analysis – ability to break down material into its component parts so that the organizational structure may be understood5. Synthesis – ability to put together parts to create a new whole; use creative behaviors to formulate new patterns and structure 6.

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Evaluation – ability to judge the value of material for a give purpose; based on either internal or external definite criteria

Alternative or authentic assessment
students originate a response to a task or question; demonstrations, exhibits, portfolios, oral presentations, or essays
traditional assessment
test/quiz – multiple choice, short-answer, true-false, or essay
Norm-referenced standardized tests
indicates that the performance results of the students who take this test are compared with the results of other students taking the test
Criterion-referenced standardized test
compare students’ knowledge and achievement in an academic area to those objectives of the curriculum established by the state standards
Performance assessments
scored based on pre-established rubric
Formative assessment
intended to aid learning by providing feedback about what has been learned so far and what remains to be learned
Summative assessment
measure of the students’ achievement at the completion of a block of work (end-of-unit test)
Holistic scoring
each element of a student’s work is used to assess the total quality of the student’s work and receives one score; use rubric
Analytic scoring
one score is given after separate grades are recorded for each element of the student’s work based on whether the elements are correct or not; quality is not considered
Intrinsic motivation
from within; self-determination; students want to learn
Extrinsic motivation
from without; need external incentives – stickers or candy
Humanistic approach to motivation
uses Maslow’s Hirtachy of needs; security, social, esteem, physiological, and self-actualization
Behavioral approach to motivation
uses reinforcement or extrinsic rewards
Cognitive approach to motivation
based on learning-goal theory, self-monitoring and reflective behaviors, and self-evaluation
Attribution Theory approach to motivation
centered around social cognitive needs of the students; allows students to blame or credit their own performance or nonperformance
developmentally appropriate programs (DAP)
based on knowledge of the individual development levels of the students; strategies/methods based on needs of students in the areas of cognition, physical activity, emotional growth, and social adjustment
Techniques for effective classroom management
1. Expectations written down2. Be consistent3. Have more than one activity per lesson4. Involve other students during presentations5. Discipline in private6.

Always have a sense of humor7. Ask for help when you need it8. Take roll while students are working

Assertive Dicipline Model of management plan
names of students showing inappropriate behavior are written in book (not board); teach desired behaviors, gives positive reinforcement, invokes discipline plan; (teacher insist on responsible behavior, use firm but humane control
Five steps to assertive discipline

recognize and remove roadblocks2. practice the use of assertive response styles3. set limits for every activity4. follow through on limits5. implement a system of positive assertions

Kounin’s effective classroom management techniques
1. showing students that you are with-it (with-it-ness)2.

cope with overlapping situations3. maintain smoothness and momentum in activities4. trying to keep whole class involved 5. introduce variety and be enthusiastic6. be aware of ripple effect