Acceptance Criteria
Those criteria, including performance requirements and essential conditions, which must be met before project deliverables are accepted.
Accepted Deliverables
Products, results, or capabilities produced by a project and validated by the project customer or sponsors as meeting their specified acceptance criteria.
Accuracy
Within the quality management system, accuracy is an assessment of correctness.
Acquire Project Team
The process of confirming human resource availability and obtaining the team necessary to complete project assignments.
Acquisition
Obtaining human and material resources necessary to perform activities. Acquisition implies a cost of resources and is not necessarily financial.
Activity
A component of work performed durnig the course of a project.
Activity Attributes
Multiple attributes associated with each schedule activity that be included within the activity list. Activity attributes include activity codes, predecessor activities, successor activities, logical relationships, leads and lags, resource requirements, imposed dates, constraints, and assumptions.
Activity Code
One or more numerical or text values that identify characteristics of the work or in some way categorize the schedule activity that allows filtering and ordering of activities within reports.
Activity Cost Estimates
The projected cost of the schedule activity that includes the cost for all resources required to perform and complete the activity, including all cost types and cost components.
Activity Duration
The time in calendar units between the start and finish of a schedule activity.
Activity Duration Estimates
A quantitative assessment of the likely amount or outcome for the duration of an activity.
Activity Identifier
A short, unique numeric or text identification assigned to each schedule activity to differentiate that project activity from other activities. Typically unique within any one project schedule network diagram.
Activity List
A documented tabulation of schedule activities that shows that activity description, activity identifier, and a sufficiently detailed scope of work description so project team members understand what work is to be performed.
Activity Resource Requirements
The types and quantities of resources required for each activity in a work package.
Actual Cost (AC)
The realized cost incurred for the work performed on an activity during a specific time period.
Actual Duration
The time in calendar units between the start and finish of a schedule activity and either the data date of the project schedule if the schedule activity is in progress or the actual finish date if the schedule activity is complete.
Adaptive Life Cycle
A project life cycle, (a.k.a. change-driven or agile methods) that is intended to facilitate change and require a high degree of ongoing stakeholder involvement. Adaptive life cycles are also iterative and incremental, but differ in that iterations are very rapid (usually 2-4 weeks in length) and are fixed in time an resources.
Additional Quality Planning Tools
A set of tools used to define the quality requirements and to plan effective quality management activities. They include: brainstorming, force field analysis, nominal group techniques and quaity management and control tools.
Adjusting Leads and Lags
A technique used to find ways to bring project activities that are behind into alignment with plan during project execution.
Advertising
The process of calling public attention to a project or effort.
Affinity Diagram
A group creativity technique that allows large numbers of ideas to be classified into groups for review and analysis.
Agreements
Any document or communication that defines the initial intentions of a project. This can take the form of a contract, memoorandum of understanding (MOU), letters of agreement, verbal agreements, emails, etc.
Alternative Analysis
A technique used to evaluate identified options in order to select which options or approaches to use to execute and perform the work of the project.
Alternatives Generation
A technique used to develop as many potential options as possible in order to identify different approaches to execute and perform the work of the project.
Analogous Estimating
A technique for estimating the duration or cost of an activity or a project using historical data from a similar activity or project.
Analytical Techniques
Various techniques used to evaluate, analyze, or forecast potential outcomes based on possible variations of project or environmental variables and their relationships with other variables.
Application Area
A category of projects that have common components significant in such projects, but are not neded or present in all projects. Application areas are usually defines in terms of either the product or the type of customer or industry sector. Application areas can overlap.
Applying Leads and Lags
A technique that is ussed to adjust the amount of time between predecessor and successor activities.
Apportioned Effort
An acticity where effort is allotted proportionately across certain discrete efforts and not divisible into discrete efforts.
Approved Change Request
A change request that has been processed through the integrated change control process and approved.
Approved Change Request Review
A review of the change requests to verify that these were implemented as approved.
Assumption
A factor in the planning process that is considered to be true, real, or certain, without proof or demonstration.
Assumptions Analysis
A technique that explores the accuracy of assumptions and identifies risks to the project from inaccuracy, inconsistenct, or incompleteness of assumptions.
Attribute Sampling
Method of measuring quality that consists of noting the presence (or absence) of some characteristics (attribute) in each of the units under consideration. After each unit is inspected, the decision is made to accept a lot, reject it, or inspect another unit.
Authority
The right to apply project resources, expend funds, make decisions, or give approvals.
Backlog
A listing of product requirements and deliverables to be completed, written as stories, and prioritized by the business to manage and organize the project’s work.
Backward Pass
A critical path method technique for calculating the late start and late finish dates by working backward through the schedule model from the project end date.
Bar Chart
A graphic display of schedule-related information.
Baseline
The approved version of a work product that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison.
Basis of Estimates
Supporting documentation outlining the details used in establishing project estimates such as assumptions, constraints, level of detail, ranges, and confidence levels.
Benchmarking
The comparison of actual or planed practices to those of comparable organizations to identify best practices, generate ideas for improvement, and proide a basis for measuring performance.
Bidder Conference
The meetings with prospective sellers prior to the presentation of a bid or proposal to ensure all prospective vendors have a clear and common understanding of the procurement.
Bottom-Up Estimating
A method of estimating project duration or cost by aggegating the estimates of the lower-level components of the work breakdown structure (WBS).
Brainstorming
A general data gathering and creativity technique that can be used to identify risks, ideas, or solutions to issues by using a group of team members or subject matter experts.
Budget
The approved estimate for the project or any work breakdown structure component or any schedule activity.
Budget at Completion (BAC)
The sum of all budgets established for the work to be performed.
Business Case
A documented economic feasibility study used to establish validity of the benefits of a selected component lacking sufficient definition and that is used as a basis for the authorization of further project management activities.
Business Value
A concept that is unique to each organization and includes tangible and intangible elements.
Buyer
The acquirer of products, services, or results for an organization.
Cause and Effect Diagram
A decomposition technique that helps trace an undesireable effect back to its root cause.
Central Tendency
A property of the central limit theorem predicting that the data observatioins in a distribution will tend to group around a central location. The three typical measures of ccentral tendency are the mean, median, and mode.
Change Control
A process whereby modifications to documents, deliverables, or baselines associated with the project are identified, documented, approved, or rejected.
Change Control Board (CCB)
A formally chartered group responsible for reviewing, evaluating, approving, delaying, or rejecting changes to the project, and for recording and communicating such decisions.
Change Control System
A set of procedures that describes how modifications to the project deliverables and documentation are managed and controlled.
Change Control Tools
Manual or automated tools to assist with change and/or configuration management.These tools should support the CCB.
Change Log
A comprehensive list of changes made during the project.
Change Request
A formal proposal to modify any documen, deliverable or baseline.
Checklist Analysis
A technque for systematically reviewing materials using a list for accuracy and completeness.
Checksheets
A tally sheet that can be used as a checklist when gathering data.
Claim
A request, demand, or assertion of rights by a seller against a buyer (or vice versa) for consideration, compensation, or payment under the terms of a legally binding contract.
Claims Administration
The process of processing, adjudicating, and communicating contract claims.
Close Procurements
The process of completing each project procurement.
Close Project or Phase
The process of finalizing all activities across all of the project management process groups to formally complete a project or phase.
Closed Porcurements
Project contracts or other procurement agreements that have been formally acknowledged by the proper authorizing agent as being finalized and signed off.
Closing Process Group
Those processes performed to finalize all activities across all process groups to formally close a project or phase.
Code of Accounts
A numbering system used to uniquely identify each component of the work breakdown structur (WBS).
Collect Requirements
The process of determining, documenting, and managing stakeholder needs and requirements to meet project objectives.
Colocation
An organizational placement strategy where the project team members are physically located close to one another in order to improve communication, working relationships, an productivity.
Communication Constraints
Restirctions on the content, timing, audience, or individual who will deliver a communication usually stemming from specific legislation or regulation, technology, or organizational policies.
Communication Methods
A systematic procedure, technique, or process used to transfer information among project stakeholders.
Communication Models
A description, analogy, or schematic used to represent how the communication process will be performed for the project.
Communication Requirements Analysis
An analytical technique to determine the information needs of the project stakeholders throuogh interviews, workshops, study of lessons learned from prvious projects.
Communication Technology
Specific tools, systems, computer programs, etc. used to transfer information among project stakeholders.
Communication Management Plan
A component of the project, prgram, or portfolio managemen plan that describes how, when and by whom information about the project will be administered and disseminated.
Compliance
A general concept of conforming to a rule, standard, law or requirement such that the assessment of compliance results in a binomial result stated as “compliant” or “noncompliant”.
Conduct Procurements
The process of obtaining seller responses, selecting a seller and awarding a contract.
Configuration Mangement System
A subsystem of the overall project management system. It is a collection of formal documented procedures used to apply tchnical and administrative direction and surveillance to:
– identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of a product, result, service, or component
– control any changes to such characteristics
– record and report each change and its implementation status
– support the audit of the products, results, or components to verify conformance to requirements.
Conflict Management
Handling, controlling, and guiding a conflictual situation to achieve a resolution.
Conformance
Within the quality management system, conformance is a general concept of delilvering results that fall within the limits that define acceptable variation for a quality requirement.
Conformance Work
In the cost of quality framework, conformance work is done to compensate for imperfections that prevent organizations from completing planned activities correctly as essential first-time work.
Constraint
A limiting factor that affects the execution of a project, program, portfolio, or process.
Context Diagrams
A visual depiction of the product scope showing a business system and how people and other systems interact with it.
Contingency
An event or occurrence that could affect the execution of the project that may be accounted for with a reserve.
Contingency Reserve
Budget within the cost baseline or performance measurement baseline that is allocated for identiied risks that are accepted an for which contingent or mitigating responses are developed.
Contingent Response Strategies
Responses provided which may be used in the event that a specific trigger occurs.
Contract
A conract is a mutually binding agreement that obligates the seller to provide the specified product or service or result and obligates the buyer to pay for it.
Contract Change Control System
The system used to collect, track, adjudicate, and communicate changes to a contract.
Control
Comparing actual performance with planned performance, analyzing variances, assessing trends to effect process improvements, evaluating possible alternatives, nd recommending appropriate corrective action as needed.
Control Account
A management control point where scope, budget, actual cost, and schedule are integrated and compared to earned value for performance measurement.
Control Chart
A graphic display of process data over time and against established control limits, which has a centerline that assists in detecting a trend of plotted values toward either control limit.
Contol Communications
The process of monitoring and controlling communications throughout the entire project life cycle to ensure the information needs of the project stakeholders are met.
Control Costs
The process of monitoring the status of the project to update the project costs and managing changes to the cost baseline.
Control Limits
The area composed of three standard deviations on either side of the centerline or mean of a normal distribution of data plotted on a control chart, which reflects the expected variation in the data.
Control Procurements
The process of managing procurement relatinships, monitoring contract performance, and making changes and corrections as appropriate.
Control Quality
The process of monitoring and recording results of executing the quality activities to assess performance an recomment necessary changes.
Control Risks
The process of implementing risk response plans, tracking identified risks, monitoring residual risks, identifying new risks, and evaluating risk process effectiveness throughout the project.
Control Schedule
The process of monitoring the status of project activities to update project progress and manage changes to the schedule baseline to achieve the plan.
Control Scope
The process of monitoring the status of the project and product scope and managing changes to the scope baseline.
Control Stakeholder Engagement
The process of monitoring overall project stakeholder relationships and adjusting strategies and plans for engaging stakeholders.
Corrective Action
An intentional activity that realigns the performance of the project work with the project management plan.
Cost Aggregation
Summing the lower-level cost estimates associated with the vaarious work packages for a given level within the project’s WBS or for a given cost control account.
Cost Baseline
The approved version of the time-phased project budget, excluding any management reserves, which can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results.
Cost Management Plan
A component of a project or program management plan that describes how costs will be planned, structured and controlled.
Cost of Quality (COQ)
A method of determining the costs incurred to ensure quality.
– prevention and appraisal costs (cost of performance)
– failure costs (cost of nonconormance)
Cost Performance Index (CPI)
a measure of the cost efficiency of budgeted resources expressed as the ratio of earned value to actual cost.
Cost Plus Award Fee Contract (CPAF)
A category of contract that involves payments to the seller for all legitimate actual costs incurred for completed work, plus an award fee representing seller profit.
Cost Plus Fixed Fee Contract (CPFF)
A type of cost-reimbursable contract, where the buyer reimburses the seller for the seller’s allowable costs plus a fixed amount of profit (fee).
Cost Plus Incenive Fee Contract (CPIF)
A type of cost-reimbursable contract, where the buyer reimburses the seller for the seller’s allowable costs and the seller earns its profits if it meets defined performance criteria.
Cost Variance (CV)
The amount of budget deficit or surplus at a given point in time, expressed as the differnce between the earned calue and the actual cost.
Cost-Benefit Analysis
A financial analysis tool used to determine the benefits provided by a project against is costs.
Cost-Reimbursable Contract
A type of contract involving payment to the seller for the seller’s actual costs, plus a fee typically representing seller’s profit. Cost-reimbursable contracts often include clauses where, if the seller meets or exceeds selected project objectives, such as schedule targets or total cost, then the seller receives from the buyer an incentive or bonus payment.
Crashing
A technique used to shorten the schedule duration for the least incremental cost by adding resources.
Create WBS
The process of subdividing project deliverables and project work into smaller, more manageable components.
Criteria
Standards, rules or tests on which a judgement or decision can be based or by which a product, service, result or process can be evaluated.
Critical Chain Method
A schedule method that allows the project team to place buffers on any project schedule path to account for limited resources and project uncertainties.
Critical Path
The sequence of activities that represents the longest path through a project, which determines the shortest possible duration.
Critical Path Activity
Any activity on the critical path in a project schedule.
Critical Path Method (CPM)
A method used to estimate the minimum project duration and determine the amount of scheduling flexibilty on the logical network paths within the schedule model.
Customer
The person(s) or organization(s) that will pay for the project’s products, service, or result. Customers can be internal or external to the performing organization.
Customer Satisfaction
Within the quality management system, a state of fulfillment in which the needs of a customer are met or exceeded for the customer’s expected experiences as assessed by the customer at the moment of evaluation.
Data Date
A point in time when the status of the project is recorded.
Data Gathering and Representation Techniques
Techniques used to collect, organize, and present data and information.
Decision Tree Analysis
A diagramming and calculation tecnhique for evaluating the implications of a chain of multiple options in the presence of uncertainty.
Decomposition
A technique used for dividing and subdividing the project scope an project deliverables into smaller, more maangeable parts.
Defect
An imperfection or deficiency in a project component where that component does not meet its requirements or specifications and needs to be either repaired or replaced.
Defect Repair
An intentional activity to modify a nonconforming product or product component.
Define Activities
The process of identifying and documenting the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables.
Define Scope
The process of developing a detailed description of the project and product.
Deliverable
Any unique and verifiable product, result, or capability to perform a service that is required to be produced to complete a process, phase, or project.
Delphi Technique
An information gathering technique used as a way to reach a consensus of experts on a subject. The experts on the subject participate in this technique anonymously. A facilitator uses a questionnaire to solicit ideas about the important project points related to the subject. The responses are summarized and are then recirculated to the experts for further comment.
Dependency Determination
A technique used to identify the type of dependency that is used to create the logical relationships between predecessor and successor activities.
Design of Experiments
A statistical method for identifying which factors may influence specific variables of a product or process under development or in production.
Determine Budget
The process of aggregating the estimated costs of individual activities or work packages to establish an authorized cost baseline.
Develop Project Charter
The process of developin a document that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.
Develop Project Management Plan
The process of defining, preparing, and coordinating all subsidiary plan and integrating them into a comprehensive project management plan.
Develop Project Team
The process of improving competencies, team member interaction, and overall team environment to enhance project performance.
Develop Schedule
The process of analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource requirements, and schedule constrainst to create the project schedue model.
Diagramming Techniques
Approaches to presenting information with logical linkages that aid in understanding.
Dictatorship
A group decision-making technique in which one individual makes the decision for the group.
Direct and Manage Project Work
The process of leading and performing the work defines in the project management plan and implementing approved changes to achieve the project’s objectives.
Discrete Effort
An activity that can be planned and measured and that yields a specific otput.
Discretionary Dependency
A relationship that is established based on knowledge of best practices within a particular application area of an aspect of the project where a specific sequence is desired.
Document Analysis
An elicitation technique that analyzes existing documentation and identifies information relevant to the requirements.
Documentation Reviews
The process of gathering a corpus of information an reviewing it to determine accuracy and completeness.
Duration (DU or DUR)
The total number of work periods required to complete a schedule activity or work breakdown structure component.
Early Finish Date (EF)
In the critical path method, the earliest possible point in time when the uncompleted portions of a schedule activity can finish based on the schedule network logic, the data date, and any schedule constraints.
Early Start Date (ES)
In the critical path method, the earliest possible point in time when the uncompleted portions of a schedule activity can start based on the schedule network logic, the data date, and any schedule constraints.
Earnd Value (EV)
The measure of work performed expressed in terms of the budget authorized for that work.
Earned Value Management
A methodology that combines scope, schedule, work breakdown structure component, often expressed in hours, days, or weeks.
Effort
The number of labor units required to complete a schedule activity or work breakdown structure component often expressed in hours, days, or weeks.
Emotional Intelligence
The capability to identify, assess and manage the personal emotions of oneself and other people, as well as the collective emotions of groups of people.
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Conditions not under the immediate control of the team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project, program or portfolio.
Estimate
A quantitative assessment of the likely amount or outcome.
Estimate Activity Duration
The process of estimating the number or work periods needed to complete individual activities with estimated resources.
Estimate Activity Resources
The process of estimating the type and quantities of material, human resources, equipment, or supplies to perform each activity.
Estimate at Completion (EAC)
The expected total cost of completing all work expressed as the sum of the actual cost to date and the estimate to complete.
Estimate Costs
The process of developing an approximation of the monetary resources needed to complete project activities.
Estimate to Complete (ETC)
The expected cost to finish all the remaining project work.
Execute
Directing, managing, performing, and accomplishing the project work; providing the deliverables; and providing work performance information.
Executing Process Group
Those processes performed to complete the work defined in the project management plan to satisfy the project specifications.
Expected Monetary Value (EMV) Analysis
A statistical technique that calculates the average outcome when the future includes scenarios that may or may not happen.
Expert Judgement
Judgement provided based upon expertise in an application area, knowledge area, discipline, industry, etc., as appropriate for the activity being performed.
External Depenency
A relationship between project activities and non-project activities.
Facilitated Workshops
An elicitation technique using focused sessions that bring key cross-functional stakeholders together to define product requirements.
Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA)
An analytical procedure in which each potential failure mode in every component of a product is analyzed to determine its effect ont eh reliabiility of that component and, y itself or in combination with other possible failure modes, on the reliability of the product or system and on the require function of the component; or the examination of a product for all ways that a failure may occur.
Fallback Plan
fallback plans include an alternative set of actions and tasks available in the even that the primary plan needs to be abandoned because of issues, risks, or other causes.
Fast Tracking
A schedule compression technique in which activities or phases normally done in sequence are performed in parallel for at least a portion of their duration.
Fee
Represents profut as a component of compensation to a seller.
Finish Date
A point in time associated with a schedule activity’s completion.
Finish-to-Finish (FF)
A logical relationship in which a successor activity cannot finish until a predecessor activity has finished.
Finish-to-Start (FS)
A logical relationship in which a successor activity cannot start until a predecessor activity has finished.
Firm-Fixed-Proce Contract (FFP)
A type of fixed price contract where the buyer pays the seller a set amount, regardless of the seller’s costs.
Fixed Formula Method
An earned value method for assigning a specified percentage of budget value for a work package to the start milestone of the work package with the remaining budget value percentage assigned when the work package is complete.
Fixed Price Incentive Fee Contract (FPIF)
A type of contract where the buyer pays the seller a set amount and the seller can earn an additional amount if the seller meets defined performance criteria.
Fixed Price with Economic Price Adjustment Contract (FP-EPA)
A fixed-price contract, but with a special provision allowing for predefined final adjustments to the contract price due to changed conditions, such as inflation changes, or cost increases for specific commodities.
Fixed-Price Contract
An agreement that sets the fee tht will be paid for a defined scope of work, regardless of the cost or effort to deliver it.
Flowchart
the depiction in a diagram format of the inputs, process actions, and outputs of one or more processes within a system.
Focus Groups
An elicitation technique that brings together prequalified stakeholders and subject matter experts to learn about their expectations and attitiudes about a proposed product, service, or result.
Forecast
An estimate or prediction of conditions and events in the project’s future based on information and knowledge available at the time of the forecsat.
Forward Pass
A critical path method technique for calculating the early start and early finish dates by working forward through the schedule model from the project start date.
Free Float
The amount of time a schedule activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of any successor or violating a schedule constraint.
Functional Manager
Someone with management authority over an organizational unit with a functional organization.
Functional Organization
A hierarichical organization where each employee has one clear superior, and staff are grouped by areas of specialization and managed by a person with expertise in that area.
Funding Limit Reconciliation
The process of comparing the planned expenditure of project funds against any limits on the commitment of funds for the project to idenify any variances between the funding limits and the planned expeditures.
Gantt Chart
A bar chart of schedule information where activities are listed on the vertical axis, dates are shown on the horizontal axis, and activity durations are shown as horizontal bars placed according to start and finish dates.
Grade
A category or rank used to distinguish items that have the same functional use but do not share the same requirements for quality.
Ground Rules
Expectations regarding acceptable behavior by project team members.
Group Creativity techniques
Techniques used to generate ideas within a group of stakeholders.
Group Decision-Making Techniques
Techniques to assess multiple alternatives that will be used to generate, classify, and prioritize requirements.
Guidelines
An official recommendation or advice that indicates policies, standards, or procedures for how something should be accomplished.
Histogram
A special form of bar chart used to describe the central tendency, dispersion and shape of a statistical distribution.
Historical Information
Documents and data on prior projects including project files, records, correspondence, closed contracts, and closed projects.
Human Resource Management Plan
A component of the project management plan that describes how the roles and responsibilities, reporting relationships, and staff management will be addressed and structured.
Idea/Mind Mapping
Technique used to consolidate ideas created through individual brainstorming sessions into a single map to reflect commonality and differences in understanding and to generate new ideas.
Identify Risks
The process of determining which risks may affect the project ad documenting their characteristics.
Identify Stakeholders
The process of identifying the people, groups, organizations that could impact or be impacted by a decision, activity, or outcome of the project and analyzing and documenting relevant information regarding their interests, involvement, interdependencies, influence, and potential impact on project success.
Imposed Date
A fixed date imposed on a schedule activity or schedule milestone, usually in the form of a “start no earlier than” and “finish no later than” date.
Incentive Fee
A set of financial incentives related to cost, schedule, or technical performance of the seller.
Incremental Life Cycle
A project life cycle where the project scope is generally determined early in the project life cycle, but time and cost estimates are routinely modified as the project team’s understanding of the product increases.
Independent Estimates
A process of using a third party to obtain and analyze information to support prediction of cost, schedule or other items.
Influence Diagram
A graphical representation of situations showing casual influences, time ordering of events, and other relationships among variables and outcomes.
Information Gathering Techniques
Repeatable processes used to assemble and organize data across a spectrum of sources.
Information Management Systems
Facilities, processes, and procedures used to collect, store, and distribute information between producers and consumers of information in physical or electronic format.
Initiating Process Group
Those processes performed to define a new project or a new phase of an existing project to obtaining authorization to start the project or phase.
Input
Any item, whether internal or external to the project that is required by a process before that process proceeds/
Inspection
Examining or measuring to verify whether an activity, component, product, result, or service conforms to specified requirements.
Inspections and Audits
A process to observe performance of contracted work or a promised product against agreed-upon requirements.
Interpersonal Skills
Ability to establish and maintain relationships with other people.
Interrelationship Diagraphs
A quality management planning tool, the interrelationship diagraphs provide a process for creative problem-solving in moderately complex scenarios that process intertwined logical relationships/
Interviews
A formal or informal approach to elicit information from stakeholders by taking to them directly.
Invitiation for Bid (IFB)
Generally, this term is equivalent to request for proposal.
Issue
A point or matter in question or in dispute, or a point or matter that is not settles and is under discussion or over which there are opposing views or disagreements.
Issue Log
A project document used to document and monitor elements under discussion or in dispute between project stakeholders.
Iterative Life Cycle
A project life cycle where the project scope is generally determined early in the project life cycle, but time and cost estimates are routinely modified as the project team’s understanding of the product increases.
Lag
The amount of time whereby a successor activity is required to be delayed with respect to a predecessor activity.
Late Finish Date (LF)
In the critical path method, the latest possible path in time when the uncompleted portions of a schedule activity can finish based on the schedule network logic, the project completion date, and any schedule constraints.
Late Start Date (LS)
In the critical path method, the latest possible path in time when the uncompleted portions of a schedule activity can start based on the schedule network logic, the project completion date, and any schedule constraints.
Lead
The amount of time whereby a successor activity can be advanced with respect to a predecessor activity.
Lessons Learned
The knowledge gained during a project which shows how project events were addressed or should be addressed in the future with the purpose of improving future performance.
Lessons Learned Knowledge Base
A store of historical information and lessons learned about both the outcomes of previous project selection decisions and previous project performance.
Level of Effort (LOE)
An activity that does not produce definitive end products and is measured by the passage of time.
Log
A document used to record and describe or denote selected items identified during execution of a process or activity.
Logical Relationship
A dependency between two activities or between and activity and a milestone.
Majority
Support from more than 50% of the members of the group.
Make-or-Buy Analysis
The process of gathering and organizing data about product requirements and analyzinf them against available alternatives including the purchase or internal manufacture of a product.
Make-or-Buy Decisions
Decisions made regarding the external purchase of internal manufacture of a product.
Manage Communications
The process of creating, collecting, distributing, storing, retrieving, and the ultimate disposition of project information in accordance with the communications management plan.
Manage Project Team
The process of tracking team member performance, providing feedback, resolving issues, and managing team changes to optimize project performance.
Manage Stakeholder Engagement
The process of communicating and working with stakeholders to meet their needs/expectations, address issues as they occur, and foster appropriate stakeholder engagement in project activities throughout the project life cycle.
Management Reserve
An amount of the project budget withheld for management control purposes. These are bugets reserved for unforseen work that is within the scope of the project.
Management Skills
The ability to plan, organize, direct, and control individuals or groups of people to achieve specific goals.
Mandatory Dependency
A relationship that is contractually required or inherent in the nature of the work.
Market Research
The process of gathering information at conferences, online reviews, and a variety of sources to identify market capabilities.
Master Schedule
A summary-level project schedule that identifies the major deliverables and work breakdown structure components and key schedule milestones.
Material
The aggregate of things used by an organization in any undertaking, such as equipment, apparatus, tools, machiinery, gear and supplies.
Matrix Diagrams
A quality mangement and control tool used to perform data analysis within the organizational structure created in the matrix.
Matrix Organization
Any organization structure in which the project manager shares responsibility with the functional manager for assigning priorities and for directing the work of persons assigned to the project.
Methodology
A system of practices, techniques, procedures, and rules used by those ho work in a discipline.
Milestone
A significant point or event in a project, program, or portfolio.
Milestone List
A list identifying all project milestones and normally indicates whether the miestone is mandatory or optional.
Milestone Schedule
A summary-level schedule that identifies the majoe schedule milestones.
Monitor
Collect project performance data with respect to a plan, produce performance measures, and report and disseminate performance information.
Monitor and Control Project Work
The process of tracking, reviewing, and reporting the progress to meet the performance objectives defined in the project management plan.
Monitoring and Controlling Process Group
Those oricesses required to trcak, review, and regulate the progress and performance of the project, identify any areas in which change to the plan are required, and initiate the corresponding changes.
Monte Carlo Simulation
A process which generates hundreds or thousnds of probable performance outcomes based on probability distributions for cost and schedule on individual tasks. The outcomes are then used to generate a probability distribution for the the project as a whole.
Most Likely Duration
An estimate of the most probable activity durationo that takes ino account all of the known variables that could affect performance.
Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis
This technique utilizes a decision matrix to provide a systematic analytical approach for establishing criteria, such as risk levels, uncertainty, and valuation, to evaluate and rank many ideas.
Near-Critical Activity
A schedule activity that has low total float. The concept of near-critical is equally applicable to a schedule activity or schedule network path. The limit below which total float is considered near criteria is subject to expert judgment and varies from project to project.
Negotiated Settlements
The process of reaching final equitable settlement of all outstanding issues, claims, and disputes through negotiation.
Negotiation
The process and activities to resolving disputes through consultations between involved parties.
Network Logic
The collection of schedule activity dependencies that makes up a project schedcule network diagram.
Network Path
Any continuous series of schedule activities connected with logical relationships in a project schedule network diagram.
Networking
Establishing connections and relationships with other people from the same or other organizations.
Node
One of the defining points of a schedule network; a juntion point joined to some or all of the other dependency lines.
Nominal Group Technique
A technique that enhances brainstorming with a voting process used to rank the most useful ideas for further brainstorming or for prioritization.
Nonconformance Work
In the cost of quality framework, nonconformance work is done to deal with the consequences of errors and failures in doing activities correctly on the first attempt. In efficient quality management systems, the amount of nonconformance work will approach zero.
Objective
Something toward which work is to be directed, a strategic position to be attained, a purpose to be achieved, a result to be obtained, a product to be produced, or a service to be performed.
Observations
A technique that provides a direct way of viewing individuals in their environment performing their jobs or tasks and carrying out processes.
Opportunity
A risk that would have a positive effect on one or more project objectives.
Optimistic Duration
An estimate of the shortest activity duration that takes into account all of the known variables that could affect performance.
Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS)
A hierarchical representation of the project organization that illustrates the relationship between project activities and the organizational units that will perform those activities.
Organizational Process Assets
Plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases that are specific to and used by the performing organization.
Organizational Project Management Maturity
The level of an organization’s ability to deliver the desired strategic outcomes in a predictable, controllable, and reliable manner.
Output
A product, result, or service generates by a process.
Parametric Estimating
An estimating technique in which an algorithm is used to calculate cost or duration based on historical data and project parameters.
Pareto Diagram
A histogram, ordered by frequency of occurrence, that shows how many results were generated by each identified cause.
Path Convergence
A relationship in which a schedule activity has more than one predecessor.
Path Divergence
A relationship in which a schedule activity has more than one successor.
Payment Systems
The system usedd to provide and track supplier’s invoices and payments for services and products.
Percent Complete
An estimate expressed as a percent of the amount of work that has been completed on an acativity or a work breakdown structure component.
Perform Integrated Change Control
The process of reviewing all change requests, approving changes and managing changes to deliverables, organizational process assets, project documents, and the project management plan and communicating their disposition.
Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis
The process of prioritizing risks for further analysis or action by assessing and combining their probability or occurrence and impact.
Perform Quality Assurance
The process of auditing the quality requirements and the results from quality control measurements to ensure that appropriate quality standards and operational definitions are used.
Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis
The process of numerically analyzing the effect of identified risks on overall project objectives.
Performance Measurement Baseline
An approved, integrated scope-schedule-cost plan for the project work against which project execution is compared to measure and manage performance. The PMB includes contingency reserve, but excludes management reserve.
Performance Reviews
A technique that is used to measure, compare, and analyze actual performance of work in progress on the project against the baseline.
Performing Organization
An enterprise whose personnel are most directly involved in doing the work of the project or program.
Pessimistic Duration
Estimate of the longest activity duration that takes into account all of the known variables that could affect performance.
Phase Gate
A review at the end of a phase in which a decision is made to continue to the next phase, to continue with modification, or to end a project or program.
Plan Communications Management
The process of developing an appropriate approach and plan for project communications based on stakeholder’s information needs and requirements and available organizational assets.
Plan Cost Management
The process that establishes the policies, procedures, and documentation for planning, managing, expending, and controlling project costs.
Plan Human Resource Management
The process of identifying and documenting project roles, responsibilities, required skills, reporting relationships, and creating a staffing management plan.
PlanProcurement management
The process of documenting project procurement decisions, specifying the approach, and idenifyin potential sellers.
Plan Quality Management
The process of idenifying quality requirements and/or standards for the project and its deliverables, and documenting how the project will demonstrate compliance with quality requirements and/or standards.
Plan Risk Management
The process of defining how to conduct risk management activities for a project.
Plan Risk Responses
The process of developing options and actions to enhance opportunities and to reduce threats to project objectives.
Plan Schedule Management
The process of establishing the policies, procedures, and documentation for planning, developing, managing, executing, and controlling the project schedule.
Plan Scope Management
The process of creating a scope management plan that documents how the project scope will be defined, validated, and controlled.
Plan Stakeholder Management
The process of developing appropriate management strategies to effectcively engage stakeholders throughout the project life cycle, based on the analysis of heir needs, interests, and potential impact on project success.
Planned Value (PV)
The authorized budget assigned to scheduled work.
Planning Package
A work breakdown structure component below the control account with know work content but without detailed schedule activities.
Planning Process Group
Those processes required to establish the scope of the project, refine the objectives, and define the course of action required to attain the objectives that he project was undertaken to achieve.
Plurality
Decisions made by the largest block in a group, even if a majority is not achieved.
Policy
A structured pattern of actions adopted by an organization such that the organizationa’s policy can be explained as a set of basic principles that govern the organization’s conduct.
Portfolio
Projects, programs, subportfolios, and operations managed as a group to achieve strategic objectives.
Portfolio Management
The centralized management of one or more portfolios to achieve strategic objectives.
Practice
A specific type of professional or management activity that contributes to the execution of a process and that may employ on or more techniques and tools.
Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)
A technique used for constructing a schedule model in which activities are represented by nodes and are graphically linked by one or more logical relationships to show the sequence in which the activities are to be performed.
Precedence Relationship
The term used in the precedence diagramming method for a logical relationship.
Precision
Within the quality management system, precision is a measure of exactness.
Predecessor Activity
An activity that logically comes before a dependent activity in a schedule.
Predictive Life Cycle
A form of project life cycle in which the project scope, and the time and cost required to deliver that scope, are determines as early in the life cycle as possible.
Preventive Action
An intentional activity that ensures the future performance of the project work is aligned with the project management plan.
Prioritization Matrices
A quality management planning tool used to identify key issues and evaluate suitable alternatives to define a set of implementation priorities.
Probability and Impact Matrix
A grid for mapping the probability of each risk occurrence and its impact on project objectives if that risk occurs.
Procedure
An established method of accomplishing a consistent performance or result, a procedure typically can be described as the sequence of steps that will be used to execute a process.
Process
A systematic series of activities directed towards causing an end result such that one or more inputs will be acted upon to create one or more outputs.
Process Analysis
A process analysis follows the steps outlined in the process improvement plan to identify needed improvements.
Process Decision Program Chats (PDPC)
The PDPC is used to understand a goal in relation to the steps for getting to the goal.
Process Improvemen Plan
A subsidiary plan of the project management plan. It details the steps for analyzing processes to identify activities that enhance their value.
Procurement Audits
The review of contracts and contracting processes for completeness, accuracy, and effectiveness.
Procurement Documents
The documents utilized in bid and proposal activities, which include the buyer’s Invitation for Bid, Invitation for Negotiations, Request for Information, Request for Quotation, Request for Proposal, and seller’s responses.
Procurement Management Plan
A component of the project or program management plan that describes how a project team will acquire goods and services from outside the performing organization.
Procurement Performance Reviews
A structured review of the seller’s progress to deliver project scope an quality, within cost and on schedule, as compared to the contract.
Procurement Statement of Work
Describes the procurement item in sufficient detail to allow prospective sellers to determine if they are capable of providing the products, services, or results.
Product
An artifact that is produced, is quantifiable, and can be either an end item in itself or a component item.
Product Analysis
For projects that have a product as a deliverable, it is a tool to define scope that generally means asking questions about a product and forming answers to describe the use, characteristics, and other relevane aspects of what is going to be manufactured.
Product Life Cycle
The series of phases that represent the evolution of a product, from concept through delivery, growth, maturity, and to retirement.
Product Scope
The features and functions that characterize a product, service, or result.
Product Scope Description
The documented narrative description of the product scope.
Program
A group of related projects, subprograms, and program activities managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits not available from maanging them individually.
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
A technique for estimating that applies a weighted average of optimistic, pessimistic, and most likely estimates where there is uncertainty with the individual activity estimates.
Program Management
The application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to a program to meet the greater requirements and to obtain benefits and control not available by managing projects individually.
Progressive Elaboration
The iterative process of increasing the level of detail in a project management plan to meet the greater amounts of information as more accurate estimates become available.
Project
A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result.
Project-Based Organizations (PBOs)
A variety of organizational forms that involve the creation of temporary systems for the performance of projects. PBOs conduct the majority of their activities as projects and/or provide project over functional approaches.
Project Calendar
A calendar that identifies working days and shifts that are available for scheduled activities.
Project Charter
A document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.
Project Communications Management
Project Communications Management includes the processes that are required to ensure timely and appropriate planning, collection, creation, distribution, storage, retrieval, management, control, monitoring, and the ultimate disposition of project informaiton.
Project Cost Management
Project Cost Management inclues the processes involved in planning, estimating, budgeting, financing, funding, managing, and controlling costs so that the project can be completed within the approved budget.
Projet Funding Requirements
Forcast project costs to be paid that are derived from the cost baseline for total or periodic requirements, including projected expenditures plus anticipated liabilities.
Project Governance
The alignment of project objectives with the strategy of the larger organization by the project sponsor and project team.
Project Human Resource Management
Project Human Resource Management includes the processes that organize, manage, and lead the project team.
Project Initiation
Launching a process that can result in the authorization of a new project.
Project Integration Management
Project Integration Management includes the processes and activities to identify, define, combine, unify, and coordinate the various processes and project mangement activities within the Project Management Process Groups.
Project Life Cycle
The series of phases that a project passes through from its initiation to its closure.
Project Management
The application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to a program to meet the project requirements.
Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK)
An inclusive term that describes the sum of knowledge within the procession of project management.
Project Management Inormation Systems (PMIS)
An information system consisting of the tools and techniques used to gather, integrate, and disseminate the outputs of project management processes. It is used to support all aspects of the project from initiating through closing and can include both manual and automated systems.
Project Management Knowledge Area
An identified area of project management defined by its knowledge requirements and described in terms of its component processes, practices, inputs, outputs, tools and techniques.
Project Mangaement Office (PMO)
An organizational structure that standardizes the project-related governance processes and facilities the sharing of resources, methodologies, tools an techniques.
Project Management Plan
The document that describes how the project will be executed, monitored and controlled.
Project Management Process Group
A logical grouping of project management inputs, tools and techniques, and outputs.
Project Management Staff
The members of the project team who erform project management actiities such as schedule, communication, risk management, etc.
Project Management System
The aggregation of the processes, tools, techniques, methodologies, resources, and procedures to manage a project.
Project Management Team
The members of the project team who are directly involved in project management activities.
Project Manager (PM)
The person assigned by the performing organization to lead the team that is responsible for achieving the project objectives.
Project Organziational Chart
A document that graphically depicts the project teeam members and their interrelationships for a specific project.
Project Phase
A collection of logically related project activities that culminates in the completion of one or more deliverables.
Project Procurement Management
Project Procurement Management includes the processes necessary to purchase or acquire products, services, or results needed fro outside the project team.
Project Quality Management
Project Quality Management includes the processes and activities of the performing organization to determine quality policies, objectives, and responsibiilties so that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken.
Projet Risk Management
Project Risk Management includes the processes of conducting risk management planning, identification, analysis, response planning, and controlling risk on a project.
Project Schedule
An output of a schedule model that presents linked activities with planned dates, durations, milestones, and resources.
Project Schedule Network Diagram
A graphical representation of the logical relationships among the project schedule activities.
Project Scope
The work performed to deliver a product, service, or result with the specified features and functions.
Project Scope Management
Project Scope Management includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, and oly the work required, to complete the project successfully.
Project Stakeholder Management
Project Stakeholder Management includes the processes required to identify the people, gropus, or organizations that could impact or be impacted by the project, to analyze stakeholders expectations and their impact on the project, and to develop appropriate mangement strategies for effectively engaging stakeholders in project decisions and execution.
Project Team
A set of individuals who support the project manager in performing the work of the project to achieve its objectives.
Project team Directory
A documented list of project team members, their project roles and communication information.
Project Time Management
Project Time Management includes the processes required to manage the timely completion of the project.
Projectized Organization
Any organizational structure in which the project manager has full authority to assign priorities, apply resources, and direct the work of persons assigned to the project.
Proposal Evaluation Techniques
The process of reviewing proposals provided by suppliers to support contract award decisions.
Prototypes
A method of obtaining early feedback on requirements by providing a working model of the expected product before actually buillding it.
Quality
The degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills requirements.
Quality Audits
A quality audit is a structured, independent process to determine if project activities comply with organizatioinal and project policies, processes, and procedures.
Quality Checklists
A structured tool used to verify that a set of required steps has been performed.
Quality Control Measurements
The documented results of control quality activities.
Quality Function Deployment (QFD)
A facililtated workshop technique that helps to determine critical characteristics for new product development.
Quality Management and Control Tools
They are a type of quality planning tools used to link and sequence the activities identified.
Quality Management Plan
A component of the project management planthat describes how an organization’s quality policies will be implemented.
Quality Management System
The organizational framework whose structure proides the policies, processes, procedures and resources required to implement the quality management plan.
Quality Metrics
A description of a project or product attribute and how to measure it.
Quality Policy
A policy specific to the Project Quality Management Knowledge Area, it establishes the basic principles that should givern the organization’s actions as it implements its system for quality management.
Quality Requirement
A condition or capability that will be used to assess conformance by validating the acceptability of anattribute for the quality of a result.
Quantitative Risk Analysis and Modeling Techniques
Commonly used techniques for both event-oriented and object-oriented analysis approaches.
Questionnaires and Surveys
Wrtiiten sets of questions designed to quickly accumulate information from a large number of respondents.
RACI
A common type of responsibility assignment matrix that ues responsible, accountable, consult, and infom statuses to define the involvement of stakeholders in project activities.
Records Management System
A specific set of processes, related control functions, and tools that are consolidated and combined to record and retain information about the project.
Regression Analysis
Ananalytic technique where a series of input variables are examined in relation to their corresponding output results in order to develop a mathematical or statistical relationship.
Regulation
Requirements impposed by a governmental body.
Reporting Sytem
Facilities, processes, and procedures used to generate or consolidate reports from one or more information management systems and faciliatate report distribution to the project stakeholders.
Request for Information (RFI)
A type of procurement document whereby the buyer requests a potential seller to provide various pieces of information related to a product or service or seller capability.
Request for Proposal (RFP)
A type of procurement document used to request proposals from prospective sellers of products or services.
Request for Quotation (RFQ)
A type of procurement document used to request price quotations from prospective sellers of common or standard products or services.
Requested Change
A formally documented change request that is submitted for approal to the integrated change control process.
Requirement
A condition or capability that is required to be present in a product, service, or result to satisfy a contract or other formally imposed specification.
Requirements Documentation
A description of how individual requirements meet the business need for the project.
Requirements Management Plan
A component of the project or program management plan that describes how requirements will be analyzed, documented and managed.
Requirements Traceability Matrix
A grid that links product requirements from their origin to the deliverables that satisfy them.
Reserve
A provision in the project management plan to mitigate cost and/or schedule risk.
Reserve Analysis
An analytical technique to determine the essential features and relationships of components in the project management planto establish a reserve for the schedule duration, budget, estimated cost, or funds for a project.
Residual Risk
A risk that remains after risk responses have been implemented.
Resource
Skilled human resources, equipment, services, supplies, commodities, material, bugets or funds.
Resource Breakdown Structure
A hierarchical representation of resources by category and type.
Resource Calendar
A calendar that identifies the working days and shifts on which each specific resource is available.
Resource Histogram
A bar chart showing the amount of time that a resource is scheduled to work over a series of time periods.
Resource Leveling
A technique in which start and finish dates are adjusted based on resource constraints with the goal of balancing demand for resources with the available supply.
Resource Optimization Techniques
A technique that is used to adjust the start and finish dates of activities that adjust planned resource use to be equal to or less than resource availability.
Resource Smoothing
A technique which adjusts the activities of a schedule model such that the requirement for resources on the project do not exceed certain predefined resource limits.
Responsibility
An assignment that can be delegated within a project management plan such that the assigned resource incurs a duty to perform the requirements of the assignment.
Responsibility Assignmen Matrix (RAM)
A grid that shows the project resources assigned to each work package.
Result
An output from performing project management processes and activities.
Rework
Action taken to bring defective or nonconforming components into compliance with requirements or specifications.
Risk
An uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, has a positive or negative effect on one or more project objectives.
Risk Acceptance
A risk response strategy whereby the project team decides to acknowledge the risk and not take any action unless the risk occurs.
Risk Appetite
The degree of uncertaintly an entity is willing to take on, in anticipation of a reward.
Risk Audits
Examination and documentation of the effectiveness of risk responses in dealing with identified risks and their root causes, as well as the effectiveness of the risk management process.
Risk Avoidance
A risk response strategy whereby the project team acts to eliminate the threat or protect the project from its impact.
Risk Breakdown Structure (RBS)
A hierarchical representation of risks according to their risk categories.
Risk Categorization
Organization by sources of risk to determine the areas of the project most exposed to the effects of uncertainty.
Risk Category
A group of potential causes of risk.
Risk Data Quality Assessment
Technique to evaluate the degree to which the data about risks is useful for risk management.
Risk Managemen Plan
A component of the project, program, or portfolio management plan that describes how risk management activities will be structured and performed.
Risk Mitigation
A risk response strategy whereby the project team acts to reduce the probability of occurrence or impact of a risk.
Risk Reassessment
The identification of new risks, reassessment of current risks, and the closing of risks that are outdated.
Risk Register
A document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded.
Risk Threshold
Measure of the level of uncertainty or the level of impact at which a stakeholder may have a specific interest.
Risk Tolerance
The degree, amount, or volume of risk that an organization or individual will withstand.
Risk Transference
A risk response strategy whereby the project team shifts the impact of a threat to a third pary, together with ownership of the response.
Risk Urgency Assessment
Review and determination of the timing of actions that may need to occur sooner than other risk items.
Role
A defined function to be performed by a project team member, such as testing, filing, inspecting or coding.
Rolling Wave Planning
An iterative planning technique in which the work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail, while the work in the future is planned at a higher level.
Root Cause Analysis
An analytical technique used to determine the basic underlying reason that causes a variance or a defect or a risk.
Scatter Diagram
A correlation chart that uses a regression line to explain or to predict how the change in an independent variable will change a dependent variable.
Schedule Baseline
The approved version of a schedule model that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results.
Schedule Compression
Techniques used to shorten the schedule duration without reducing the project scope.
Schedule Data
The collection of information for describing and controlling the schedule.
Schedule Forecasts
Estimates or predictions of conditions and events in the project’s future based on information and knowledge available at the time the schedule is calculated.
Schedule Mangement Plan
A component of the project management plan that establishes the criteria and the activities for developing, monitoring, and controlling the schedule.
Schedule Model
A representation of the plan for executing the project’s actiities including durations, dependencies and other planning information, used to produce a project schedule along with other scheduling artifacts.
Schedule Network Analysis
The technique of idenifying early and late start dates, as well as early and late finish dates, for the uncompleted portions of project schedule activities.
Schedule Network Templates
A set of activities and relationships that have been established that can be used repeatedly for a particular application or an aspect of the project where a prescribed sequence is desired.
Schedule Performance Index (SPI)
A measure of schedule efficiency expressed as the ratio of earned value to planned value.
Schedule Variance (SV)
A measure of schedule performance expressed as the differene between the earned value and the planne value.
Scheduling Tool
A tool that provides schedule component names, definitions, structural relationships, and formats that support the application of a schedulin method.
Scope
The sum of products, services, and results to be provided as a project.
Scope Baseline
The approved version of a scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and its associated WBS dictionary, that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison.
Scope Change
Any change to the project scope.
Scope Creep
The uncontrolled expansion to product or project scope without adjustments to time, cost, and resources.
Scope Management Plan
A component of the project or program management plan that describes how the scope will be defined, developed, monitored, controlled, and verified.
Secondary Risk
A risk that arises as a direct result of implementing a risk response.
Selected Sellers
The sellers which have been selected to provide a contracted set of services or products.
Seller
A provider of products, services, or results to an organization.
Seller Proposals
Formal reponses from sellers to a request for proposal or other procurement document specifying the price, commercial terms of sale, and technical specifications or capabilities the seller will do for the requesting organization that, if accepted, would bind the seller to perform the resulting agreement.
Sensitive Analysis
A quantitative risk analysis and modeling technique used to help determine which risks have the most potential impact on the project.
Sequence Activities
The process of idenifying and documenting relationships among the project activities.
Seven Basic Quality Tools
A standard toolkit used by quality management professionals who are responsible for plannin, monitoring, and controlling the issues related to quality in an organization.
Simulation
A simulation uses a project model that translates the uncertainties specified at a detailed level into their potential impact on objectives that are expressed at the level of the total project.
Source Selection Criteria
A set of attributes desired by the buyer which a seller is required to meet or exceed to be selected for a contract.
Specification
A document that specifies, in a complete, precise, verifiable manner, the requirements, design, behavior, or other characteristics of a system, component, product, result, or service and the procedures for determining whether these provisions have been satisfied.
Specification Limits
The area, on either side of the centerline, or mean, of data plotted on a control chart that meets the customer’s requirements for a product or service.
Sponsor
A person or group who provides resources and support for the project, program, or portfolio and is accountable for enabling success.
Sponsoring Organization
The entity responsible for providing the project’s sponsor and a conduit for project funding or other project resources.
Staffing Management Plan
A component of the human resource plan that describes when and how project team members will be acquired and how long they will be needed.
Stakeholder
An individual, group, or organization who may affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by a decision, activity, or outcome of a project.
Stakeholder Analysis
A technique of systematically gathering and analyzing quantitative and qualitative information to determine whose interests should be taken into account throughout the project.
Stakeholder Mangement Plan
The stakeholder management plan is a subsidiary plan of the project management plan that defines the processes, procedured, tools and techniques to effectvely engage stakeholders in project decisions and execution based on the analysis of their needs, interests, and potential impact.
Stakeholder Register
A project documen including the identification, assessment, and clarification of project stakeholders.
Standard
A documen that provides, for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines, or characteristics for activities or their results, aimed at the achievement of the optimum degree of order in a given context.
Start Date
A point in time associated with a schedule activity’s start, usually qualified by one of the following: actual, planned, estimated, scheduled, early, late, target, baseline, or current.
Start-to-Finish (SF)
A logical relationship in which a successor activity cannot finish until a predecessor activity has started.
Start-to-Start (SS)
A logical relationship in which a successor activity cannot start until a predecessor activity has started.
Statement of Work (SOW)
A narrative description of products, services, or results to be delivered by the project.
Statistical Sampling
Choosing part of a population of interest for inspection.
Subnetwork
A subdivision (fragment) of a project schedule network diagram, usually representing a subproject or a work package.
Subproject
A smaller portion of the overall project created when a project is subdivided into more management components or pieces.
Successor Activity
A dependent activity that logically comes after another activity in schedule.
Summary Activity
A group of related schedule activities aggregated and displayed as a single activity.
SWOT Analysis
Analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of anorganization, project or option.
Tailor
The act of carefully selecting process and related inputs and outputs contained within the PMBOK Guide to determine a subset of specific processes that will be included within a project’s overall management approach.
Technique
A defined systematic procedure employed by a human resource to perform an activity to produce a product or result or deliver a service, and that may employ one or more tasks.
Templates
A partially complete document in a predefined format that provides structure for collecting, organizing, and presenting information and data.
Threat
A risk that would have a negative effect on one or more project objectives.
Three-Point Estimate
A technique used to estimate cost or duration by applying an average of optimistic, pessimistic, and most likely estimates when there is uncertainty with the individual activity estimates.
Threshold
A cost, time, quality, technical, or resource value used as a parameter ,and which may be included in product specifications.
Time and Material Contract (T&M)
A type of contract that is hybrid contractual arrangement containing aspects of both cost-reimbursable and fixed-price contracts.
Time-Scaled Schedule Network Diagram
Any product schedule network diagram drawn in such a way that the positioning and length of the schedule activity represents its duration.
To-Complete Performance Index (TCPI)
A measure of the cost performance that is required to be achieved with the remaining resources in order to meet a specified management goal, expressed as the ratio of the cost to finish the outstanding work to the remaining budget.
Tolerance
The quantified description of acceptable variation for a quality requirement.
Tornado Diagram
A special type of bar chart used in sensitivity analysis for comparing the relative importance of the variables.
Tool
Something tangible, such as a template or software program, used in performing an activity to produce a product or result.
Total Float
The amount of the time that a schedule activity can be delayed or extended from its early start date without delaying the project finish date or violating a schedule constraint.
Tree Diagram
A systematic diagram of a decomposition hierarchy used to visualize as parent-to-child relationships a systematice sete of rules.
Trend Analysis
An analytical technique that uses mathematical models to forecast future outcomes based on historical results.
Trigger Condition
An event or situation that indicates that a risk is about to occur.
Unanimity
Agreement by everyone in the group on a single course of action.
Validate Scope
The process of formalizing acceptance of the completed project deliverables.
Validation
The assurance that a product, service, or system meets the needs of the customer and other identified stakeholders.
Value Engineering
An approach used to optimize project life cycle costs, save time, increase profits, improve qualilty, expand market share, solve problems, and/or use resources more effectively.
Variance
A quantifiable deviation, departure, or diveregence away from a known baseline or expected value.
Variance Analysis
A technique for determining the cause and degree of difference between the baseline and actual performance.
Variance at Completion (VAC)
A projection of the amount of budget deficit or surplus, expressed as the difference between the budget at completion ad the estimate at completion.
Variation
An actual condition that is different from the expected condition that is contained in the baseline plan.
Velocity
A measure of a team’s productivity rate at which the deliverables are produced, validated, and accepted within a predefined interval.
Verification
The evaluation of whether or not a product, service, or system complies with a regulation, requirement, specification, or imposed condition.
Verified Deliverables
Completed project deliverables that have been checked and confirmed for correctness through the Control Quality process.
Voice of the Customer
A planning technique used to provide products, services, and results that truly reflect customer requirements by translating those customer requirements into the appropriate technical requirements for each phase of project product development.
WBS Dictionary
A document that provides detailed deliverable, activity, and scheduling information about each component in the work breakdown structure.
Weighted Mileston Method
An earned value method that divides a work package into measureable segmens, each ending with an observable milestone, and then assigns a weighted value to the achieveent of each milestone.
What-If Scenario Analysis
The process of evaluating scenarios in order to predict their effect on project objectives.
Work Authorization
A permission and direction, typically written, to begin work on a specific schedule activity or work package or control account.
Work Authorization System
A subsystem of the overall project management system. It is a collection of formal documented procedures that defines how project work will be authorized (committed) to ensure that the work is done by the identified organization, at the right time, and in the proper sequence.
Work Breakdown Struture (WBS)
A hierarchical decomposition of the toal scope of work to be carried out by the project teeam to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables.
Work Breakdown Structure Component
Anentry in the work breakdown sturcture that can be at any level.
Work Package
The work defined at the lowest level of the work breakdown structure for which cost and duration can be estimated and managed.
Work Performance Data
The raw observations ad measurements identified during activities being performed to carry out the project work.
Work Performance Information
The performance data collected from various controlling processes, analyzed in context and integrated based on relationships across areas.
Work Performance Reports
The physical or electronic representation on work performance information compiled in project documents, intended to generate decisions, actions, or awareness.
Workaround
A response to a threat that has ocurres, for which a prior response had not been plannd or was not effective.