BOOK REVIEW POLIO AN AMERICAN STORY BY DAVID M.

OCHINSKY PHAR 6605 Pharmaceutical Industry structure and government regulations PRESENTED BY: Asakiran Nadikatla PRESENTED TO: Gerard Cleaves Polio an American story is a scholarly readable and informative book which covers the lives of many American eminent scientists who struggled a lot to eradicate polio. This book mainly focuses on the mid twentieth century where the people are very eager to find a vaccine to eradicate polio .This book also covers the entire topics from appearance of polio symptoms to post polio syndrome which shows the valuable thesis done by David M. Oshinsky. Throughout this book he has mined the personal lives of Albert Sabin, Jonas Salk, Thomas Francis who contributed or struggled hard to eradicate a serious dreadful disease like polio. He also relates the mysterious rise of poliomyelitis to the response of public, media, press and government.He also described very clearly about the lives of eminent scientists like Sabin, Jonas Salk, Basil who contributed a lot in understanding and control of polio. He also included some tragedic events like administration of inactivated experimental polio vaccine to the children in the 19th century resulted in paralyzing hundreds of vaccine recipients, to administering the inactivated polio vaccine to oral polio vaccine is very well documented and presented.

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He also describes Franklin Delano Roosevelt struggle with his limb paresis, Roosevelt one time law partner who was the founder of National foundation of infant paralysis, He has shown how Roosvelt suffered from this serious disease at his early age and also clearly explained each event in FDR and also mentioned about how the warmth of water high mineral content like calcium magnesium helped for recovery of this disease, and also shown how he helped the other people suffering from polio.In the initial chapters he has shown the meaning and origin of the disease name, symptoms and mode of transmission of this disease is given in detail he also very well portrayed the rivalry between Salk and Sabin in finding the vaccine for curing this disease. He also gave the detailed description and reasons beyond approval of polio vaccine by Sabin, As Sabin’s vaccine is not contaminated and it is easy to administer at the same time it can effective over long periods.The author also States that Isabel Morgan most talented researcher among all polio researchers he also states that she might beaten the Salk’s prize if she did not retired by then. He also gave brief description about National foundation for infantile paralysis which was established in 19th century by FDR and Basil O conor it helped in bringing awareness about polio in entire America . It also changed the way of sanctioning license to release the tested new drugs into the market, and also the way in which legal system dealt with manufacturers liability for using the unsafe and harmful products.

He also focused on the work done by Isabel Morgan and her contributions to develop the polio vaccine and achieved success about the creation of a killed virus vaccine which worked on monkeys, but she decided to take care of her family rather than developing the vaccine further. David M Oshinsky author of Polio An American story believes and also stated that Morgan could have beaten Salk’s if she continued her research she was two years advanced when compared to the Salk’s vaccine.In this book he clearly portrayed polio from different perspective, He narrated stories of different researchers he mined their lives using many resources like oral narratives, magazines ,news papers and presented these experiences and information he has in a sequential manner from onset of poliomyelitis to hospitalization and treatment, rehabilitation and getting back home were clearly shown using different realistic examples.Not only this he also included development of polio vaccine and different phases of development were clearly written by him. Nevertheless Oshinsky has written valuable informative book which is carefully researched and very well documented. He has presented history about the researchers in twentieth century campaign to eradicate polio. Finally he devoted this book to the highly efficient researchers for their life saving vaccines.Genetically modified T cells kills tumors in leukemia patients Cancer treatment is becoming more advanced now a days, The university of Pennsylvania cancer center and Perelman school of medicine have introduced more advanced therapy in treating cancer here the patients were treated with their own genetically modified T cells this treatment involves isolating patients cells and modifying them in penns vaccine production and infusing these genetically modified t cells into the patient’s body followed by chemotherapy which helps a lot in treating cancer including lungs, ovaries, myeloma and melanoma.

These findings are published in the New England journal of Medicine here the first focus of gene transfer therapy to create serial killer T cells aimed at removing tumors within three weeks the tumors has been disappeared. It worked better than we expected said senor author Carl June director of translational research. MECHANISM OF ACTION: After removing the patients cells the team reprogram them to attack tumor cells by genetically modifying them using lentivirus vector .This vector encodes an antibody like protein called CAR, which is expressed on T cell surface which is designed to bind a protein called CD 19 than these T cells will attack the cells which has CD 19 on their surface and ignore the other cells to minimize the side effects. The effectiveness of these genetically modified Tcells can be clearly shown by giving one practical example which is published in New England Journal of medicine saying that a 64 year old man is treated with this t cell shows different responses before treatment and after treatment . rior to this treatment his blood and marrow is completely filled with the tumor cells for the first two weeks there is no response from the patient but after 14 days the patient started suffering from fever, chills and other symptoms tests clearly shown that there is increase in number of T cells in the body which leads to tumor lysis that means immense number of cancer cells die at a time.By the end of 28th day there is no evidence of tumors in the patient’s body and finally he is relieved from Leukemia.

REFERENCE: http://www. worldpharmanews. com/research/1772-genetically-modified-serial-killer-t-cells-obliterate-tumors-in-leukemia-patients