Poverty is one of the most important issues in India.
It refers to a situation when people are deprived of basic needs of life, including food, clothes, and shelter. Thus, most of people in India do not get their two times meal in a proper way; some of them have to sleep at the roadside and wear dirty old clothes. Many Indian people do not get proper medical services and other necessary things. Poverty in a number of Indian villages like Bihar is increasing, since there are increases in the rural population, as people from urban areas move to villages and small towns to find financial activity in farming. India has been experiencing poverty for a long time of its history.
The village Bihar has been facing poverty for the past fifteen years, and it has been getting worse ever since. In this village 85% of people have been experiencing poverty for the past 8 years and about 70% of them are still struggling from it (Krishna). Two out of three inhabitants of Bihar are of the lowest caste system. Among all people living in Bihar, 40% cannot read or write. There are no schools, stores, or shops in the village. Instead of attending school, children have to work long hours with their families. Huge amounts of rain often cause floods that destroy Bihar’s farmland.
As a result of this, it is extremely difficult to eat and make money for families in Bihar. These are only some of the reasons that have lead Bihar into poverty. The people of Bihar, as well as the Indian government, developed several theories concerning the main cause of poverty in Bihar and possible solutions to the problem. Some assumptions taken by the government is that people in the village refuse to work and earn money for food.
On the contrary, people in Bihar believe that the Indian government has done nothing to help them overcome poverty or at least to educate them. These opposing ideas on the topic cause a great interest about how poverty in Bihar actually occurred. In relation to this topic, the main task of the paper is to prove what caused poverty in the village and how the Indian government and international organizations can help Bihar. Different views on the problem hold high stakes, since the assumptions developed by the people of Bihar and by the government bring some truth and value into the question of how poverty occurred and how to solve the issue.
Presenting the thesis There are many social and economic problems in Bihar. Though the opponents of the association of poverty and education do not see this relationship crucial, poverty in Bihar is strongly associated with education for a number of reasons, namely, education is able to reduce income inequalities. With the help of international organizations and Indian government we can implement educators from around the global to come into the village of Bihar and The first reason that proves the existence of the association between poverty and education in Bihar is that it is the level of education that influences income inequalities in society. Thus, citizens with low-level education or uneducated citizens are less productive and have less paying occupations, eventually earning less money and facing low levels of living, even below poverty (Tilak 4). In addition to this, education plays a significant role in transferring a society to prosperity.
It is done by means of broadening people’s understanding and strengthening democratic processes that serve to eradicate income inequalities and promote sustainable development. Furthermore, there is evidence that illiterate households in Bihar are characterized by the largest incidence of poverty (Tilak 5). Vice versa, poverty declines considerably by increasing educational levels. In general, household income in Bihar depends on education and training. As a result, illiterate individuals are often poor, while educated citizens face poverty just in rare cases, which means that poverty in Bihar is associated with education. Another important factor showing that poverty in Bihar is connected with education is examples of Asian countries that either are India’s neighbours or have similar levels of economic and social development and have clear evidence of association of poverty with education.
For example, one of the main poverty reduction strategies in China refers to increasing funding of basic education expenses (Ghosh 11). More than that, it was proved that increased expenditure on education in China led to the largest level of reduction in poverty and inequality in society, as well as stimulated production in the country (Ghosh 12). Another example is studies conducted on the topic of the influence of education on poverty levels in Thailand and Pakistan. Thus, almost 100 percent of poor citizen in Thailand are illiterate uneducated, and the same is true about Pakistan (Tilak 5). Consequently, education is considered a constituent part of programs aimed at reducing the levels of poverty in a number of developing countries. These vivid examples of Asian countries show that there is similar association of poverty and education in Bhar.The opponents of considering the association between poverty and education in Bihar an important social factor affecting both issues claim that education is not usually named among the key causes of poverty. However, though education is not regarded as a direct reason for poverty, it influences other reasons implicitly (and even explicitly in some cases).
For example, major causes of poverty usually include low rate of economic growth and unemployment. Both these factors, as well as a number of other social and economic factors, are affected by insufficient educational levels. In other words, unemployment and slowdown in economic development can be considered as major consequences of poor education and investment in it. As a result, the argument of not associating poverty in Bihar with educational levels of its people is not effective, because education affects many of the causes of poverty in the country. One of the most significant arguments for tracing a direct association between poverty and education in Bihar is an interrelationship of these two notions. This relationship is determined by one of the most crucial properties of education, namely, providing knowledge, skills, and abilities that are associated with higher wages. If a person has necessary skills and knowledge, he/she will have higher income; if his/her income is higher, a person will be able to combat poverty. Apart from income, other areas of poverty are positively affected by education, namely, water supply, healthcare facilities, and so on.
In this light, it is important to invest in education to get its positive outcomes in fighting with poverty. Otherwise, poverty will be strengthened. Thus, recruiting “barefoot” teachers known as Shiksha Karmis is a popular trend in India (Lastrapes 20). These teachers usually do not have necessary qualifications and have small payments. As a result, there are severe consequences of this pure strategy concerning the quality of education, mainly referring to eventual increases in income poverty. Education poverty is known to have “a mutually reinforcing relationship with income poverty” (Philip) This mutual relationship, or interrelationship, or a direct correlation, manifests itself in the following way: low investment in education increases income poverty, while people with income poverty are unable to make their investments in education.
Consequently, when a person has a high level of education, he/she is not likely to face poverty. Tracing this association of poverty and education is thus an important task of the government to solve these social problems. Moreover, these problems are evident, because there is evidence suggesting that economic growth and the reduction of poverty are directly affected by investment in human capital and education (Julius and Bawane 73). To put it simpler, the productivity of poor households in particular and of the country’s economy directly depends on investment in education. And again, the reverse effect is often observed, when poverty becomes a major obstacle for people’s attainment of education. Therefore, the interrelation between poverty and education proves that poverty in Bihar is associated with educational levels of its citizens. In conclusion, poverty in the village Bihar is associated with education for a number of crucial reasons.
First of all, education plays a pivotal role in reducing income inequalities in the Indian society by influencing productivity of households and standards of living. Besides, a vivid association of poverty and education is observed in a number of other Asian countries situated in the same region with India and having similar rates of economic growth, including China, Thailand, and Pakistan. Finally, the interrelationship between poverty and education proves that though education is not a direct cause of poverty, it is its root, because it is a major reason for the majority of economic and social factors influencing poverty.
One of the crucial solutions is that education should be provided to every child in Bihar regardless of the economic status of the family. The benefits that children can get from education will help both their parents in teaching them how to speak or write and children themselves who would be able to get employed in the future. Education is able to help the children living in Bihar to stop feeling the effects of poverty they are currently experiencing. As for global benefits of this solution, local farmers will get necessary knowledge of how to manage their farms and household to earn money and boost the economy of the village. As a representative of society, I am ready to go to the village of Bihar with my peers and to educate the youth, no matter whether it is done by going to their school and teaching a class or hosting private tutoring sessions.Word Count: 1600Works CitedGhosh, Jayati. “Poverty Reduction in China and India: Policy Implications of Recent Trends.
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