Legal Definition of Special Education
specially designed instruction to meet the individual needs of an exceptional child
Categories of Special Education
MRLDADHDCommunication DisordersEmotional DisordersBlindness/low visionPhysical Disabilities or other Health ImpairmentsDeaf and hard of hearing issuesMultiple & Severe Disabilities
Brown Vs. Board of Education
1954- children with exceptionalities were guaranteed the right to an equal education, but many special needs students till did not receive services
This act ensures the federal government’s support for public schools was passed, and was also amended to include federal support to state schools that educated children with exceptionalities
1960s Elementary and Secondary Education Act
This was created in 1966 to provide grants to states to improve their education programs for students with disabilities
Bureau for the Education of the Handicapped (BEH)
This was the first federal legislation to identify the rights of children with exceptionalities from 3 to 21 years of age. This law specified that students with special needs were entitled to a free and appropriate public education (FAPE) in the least restrictive environment (LRE)
1975 Education for ALL Handicapped Children Act (PL 94-142)
authorized funding for parent training to protect the rights of a child
PL 89-199 (Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments (1983))
early intervention, mandated services from birth
PL 99-457 (Education of Handicapped Act Amendments [1986]) {Early Intervention Amendment}
assistive technology authorized funding for technological assistance
PL 100-407 (Technology-Related Assistance for Individuals with Disabilities Act [1988])
required access to vocational programs
PL 101-392 (The Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Act [1990])
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
enacted in 1994 and amended in 1997; reauthorized in 2004
What must a special educator do in addition to providing instruction?
assess student learning, modify curriculum, write IEP goals, monitor IEP goals and special education services, report student progress to parents, plan and collaborate with other teachers, supervise paraprofessionals, resolve scheduling conflicts, counsel students, attend IEP meetings, & communicate with administrators and psychologists on a regular basis.

a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age 3, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance
A combination of hearing and visual impairments causing such severe communication, developmental, and educational problems that the student cannot be accommodated in either a program specifically for the deaf or for the blind
A hearing loss severe enough that the student cannot understand what is being said even with a hearing aid
Emotional disturbance
A condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics, displayed over a long period of time and to a marked degree, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance:an inability to learn that cannot be expalined by intellecutal, sensory, or health factors; an inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers or teachers; inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances; a general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression; a tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems (includes schizophrenia)
hard of hearing
an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a student’s educational performance but is not included under the definition of deafness as listed herein
Learning disability
a disorder in one or moe of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations
MR (Intellectual Disabilities)
significantly subaverage general intellectual funcitoning, existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance
Multiple Disabilities
a combination of impairments that causes such severe educational problems that the child cannot be accommodated in a special education program solely for one of the impairments.
Related Services
transportation and such developmental, corrective, and other supportive services as are required to assist a child with a disability to benefit from special education, and includes speech-language pathology and audiology services, interpreting services, psychological services, physical and occupational therapy, recreation, including recreation, etc.
Highly Qualified Teacher
have a bachelor’s degreestate certification or have passed a state licensing examhave a license to teach in the state
Response to Intervention
intervention on a tier level to maximize student achievement
IEP goals have 4 components
student’s nametarget behaviorconditions under which behavior will be performedcriteria for acceptable performance
Classroom Management
refers to the orchestration or operation of your special education classroom or learning environment as a whole
Psychodynamic perspective
based on the work of sigmund Freud. Applies a medical disease approach to personality and defines deviance as intra-psychic conflict or as a lack of integration among the mental structures of the mind (id, ego, superego). results in interventions that include a more permissive environment and the use of role play, drama, drawing, painting, puppets, and physical activities
Psycho-educational Perspective
combines the intra-psychic or underlying conflicts with the pressures of functioning in the home, school, and community.

Interventions emphasize the problem identification and solution planning through one-on-one therapeutic discussion

biophysical perspective
based on the assumption that human behavior and physiology are connected. Interventions such as surgery, diet control, biofeedback, physical exercise, and drug therapy are used to modify student’s learning and behavior
ecological perspective
problem behavior arises due to a lack of “fit” between the person and the environment. the problem behavior does not reside solely in the student, but the problem lies in the relationship between the person and the environment.

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Interventions include adjusting class expectations and emphasizing the development of skills

Humanistic Perspective
They experience incongruence (between the way that an individual views himself and his experience–inner experience such as feelings and emotions or outer experience such as activities or interestsInterventions include teachers building relationships with their students by establishing and maintaining support.
Behavioral Perspective
learned behaviorInterventions include ABC (Antecedent) (Behavior) (Consequence)
Cognitive Learning Perspective
problem behavior resuls from immature beliefs. Students assume responsibikity for their own behavior and actions. Interventions include self monitoring, self instruction, etc.
Postive Behavior Support
refers to culturally appropriate application of positive behavioral interventions and systems to achieve socially important behavior change
Functional Behavior Assessment
systematic process of identifying problem behaviors and events that reliably predict occurrence and nonoccurrence of those behaviors and maintain the behaviors across time
Six basic active listening techniques
Six Principles
Zero RejectNondiscriminatory EvaluationAppropriate EducationLREProcedural Due ProcessParent & Student Participation