Stylistics Definitions of Stylistics: •The study of style. Style has to do with making CHOICES •The study of the way an author uses words and grammar as well as other elements both within the sentence and within the text as a whole •Part of linguistics which concentrates on variation in the use of language, often, but not exclusively with attention to the most conscious and complex use of language in literature. •The study of literary discourse from a linguistic orientation. ————————————————————————————————————— Disciplines: LinguisticsLiterary Criticism Stylistics Subjects: Language Literature —————————————————————————————————————- Some useful concepts in Stylistics: Foregrounding – emphasis on a textual feature; may be achieved through unusual or strange collocations, meaningful repetitions, contrast, deliberate deviation from the norms/rules/conventions Collocation – the co-occurrence of certain words

Reference vs. Representation – Reference is the indexical function of language, pointing to different aspects of reality. Representation is manipulating language to stand for an experience/situation. Diegesis & Mimesis – Diegesis is telling/narrating; mimesis is showing Cooperative Principle – According to Grice, people can engage in meaningful extended conversation because, under normal conditions, the interlocutors observe certain principles, which he calls the four conversational maxims.

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The maxim of Quantity exhorts speakers to “make [their] contribution as informative as is required for the current purpose of the exchange”; the maxim of Quality upholds the value of truth/sincerity; the maxim of Relation insists on the relevance of contributions to the conversation; and the maxim of Manner refers to the avoidance of obscurity of expression and ambiguity, and to be orderly Speech Act – The theory that many utterances are significant not so much in terms of what they say, but rather in terms of what they do http://www. dlsud. edu. ph/forms/llc/HandoutsStylistics. pdf