Phonological Awareness
(BROAD)Identifying and manipulating larger parts of spoken language, such as words, syllabus, onsets & rimes, and phonemes.
Phonemic awareness
(Specific) Ability to hear, identify, and manipulate the individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words. Sub-category of phonological awareness.
Rhyming awareness
Ability to find words that have the same sounds at the end.
Phonemes
Smallest part of spoken language that makes a difference in the meaning of words.Example – If has two phonemes (/i/ /f/).

Phoneme Segmentation
– Breaking words into their individual phonemes (sounds) -> Segmenting words- Also segmenting when children break words into syllables and syllables into onsets & rimes.
Phoneme Blending
Combining individual phonemes to form words.
Phoneme Deletion
Recognizing the word that remains when a phoneme is REMOVED from another word.
Phoneme Substitution
SUBSTITUTING (replacing) one phoneme for another to make a new word.

Phoneme Addition
Make a new word by ADDING a phoneme to an existing word.
Phoneme Manipulation
Blending, segmenting, deleting, adding, or substituting phonemes in words.
Phonics
Understanding that there is a predictable relationship between phonemes and graphemes
Graphemes
Letters and spellings that represent those sounds in written language.

Alphabetic principle
Understanding that there are systematic and predictable relationships between written letters and spoken sounds.
Orthography
Spelling patterns
Morphology
Structural analysis
Syllabication
Forming and dividing words into syllables
Onset
Phonemes or letters before the first vowel.Ex. – Cat Onset – C
Rime
The phonemes of the remaining part of the word after the first vowel.Ex.

– Cat Rime – at

Decoding
Using letter patterns in a known word to figure out an unfamiliar word.
Word families
Groups of words that have a common feature or pattern – they have some of the same combinations of letters in them and a similar sound.Ex. Cat, Hat, Bat -> Same “at” letters and (/a/ /t/) sound.

Explicit, systematic phonics instruction
Provides practice with letter-sound relationships in a predetermined sequence. Children learn to use these relationships to decode words that contain them.
Automaticity
Fast, effortless word recognition that comes with a great deal of reading practice. Refers ONLY to accurate, speedy word recognition.
Spelling Rules
(Too broad.)
Nonsense word fluency
A standardized, individually administered test of the alphabetic principle – including letter-sound correspondence in which letters represent their most common sounds and of the ability to blend letters into words in which letters represent their most common sounds
Running Records
A tool using a standard set of symbols to analyze a student’s reading process by recording the reader’s oral reading and then marking the oral reading performance.
Informal Reading Inventories (IRIs)
An informal assessment that measures print and meaning processing on a series of graded passages establishing independent, instructional, or frustration level.
Fluency
The ability to read a text accurately and quickly.

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Students read WITH expression.

Automaticity (REVIEW TIME!)
Fast, effortless word recognition that comes with a great deal of reading practice. Refers ONLY to accurate, speedy word recognition. Does not care about reading with expression.
Read-alouds
When a teacher or student reads orally either to a group or to a specific person.
Prosody
The rhythm, stress, and intonation of speech.
Rate
(Too broad!)
Accuracy
Reading the material with few errors.

Sight Words
Words that students can recognize rapidly. The first words they learn to recognize.
Repeated Readings
The student reads through a passage repeatedly, silently or aloud, and receives help with reading errors.
Choral Readings
Reading aloud as a group.
Echo Readings
Teacher reads first and the students read immediately after the teacher.
Readability Levels
It is the book’s level. It measuresthe textual difficulty of a book and is determined by a readability formula.

Readers’ Theater
Dramatic interpretation of a play script through oral interpretive reading. The story theme and character development are conveyed through intonation, inflection, and fluency of oral reading.
Instant Word Recognition
Identifying words with speed and accuracy.
Running Records (REVIEW TIME!)
A tool using a standard set of symbols to analyze a student’s reading process by recording the reader’s oral reading and then marking the oral reading performance.
Miscue Analysis
Usually goes with running records! An assessment tool for examining miscues (mistakes) in order to analyze cueing patterns.
Vocabulary
Sight words
High-frequency words
Word walls
Word sorts
Structural analysis
Semantics
Categorizing
Expressive Vocabulary
Receptive Vocabulary
Content Area Vocabulary
Academic Vocabulary
Word-learning strategies
Graphic organizers
Concept maps
Linear arrays
Context clues
Cloze activities
Similies
Metaphors
Analogies
Idioms
Informal speech
Informal writing