(BROAD)Identifying and manipulating larger parts of spoken language, such as words, syllabus, onsets & rimes, and phonemes.
(Specific) Ability to hear, identify, and manipulate the individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words. Sub-category of phonological awareness.
Ability to find words that have the same sounds at the end.
Smallest part of spoken language that makes a difference in the meaning of words.Example – If has two phonemes (/i/ /f/).
– Breaking words into their individual phonemes (sounds) -> Segmenting words- Also segmenting when children break words into syllables and syllables into onsets & rimes.
Combining individual phonemes to form words.
Recognizing the word that remains when a phoneme is REMOVED from another word.
SUBSTITUTING (replacing) one phoneme for another to make a new word.
Make a new word by ADDING a phoneme to an existing word.
Blending, segmenting, deleting, adding, or substituting phonemes in words.
Understanding that there is a predictable relationship between phonemes and graphemes
Letters and spellings that represent those sounds in written language.
Understanding that there are systematic and predictable relationships between written letters and spoken sounds.
Forming and dividing words into syllables
Phonemes or letters before the first vowel.Ex. – Cat Onset – C
The phonemes of the remaining part of the word after the first vowel.Ex.
– Cat Rime – at
Using letter patterns in a known word to figure out an unfamiliar word.
Groups of words that have a common feature or pattern – they have some of the same combinations of letters in them and a similar sound.Ex. Cat, Hat, Bat -> Same “at” letters and (/a/ /t/) sound.
Explicit, systematic phonics instruction
Provides practice with letter-sound relationships in a predetermined sequence. Children learn to use these relationships to decode words that contain them.
Fast, effortless word recognition that comes with a great deal of reading practice. Refers ONLY to accurate, speedy word recognition.
Nonsense word fluency
A standardized, individually administered test of the alphabetic principle – including letter-sound correspondence in which letters represent their most common sounds and of the ability to blend letters into words in which letters represent their most common sounds
A tool using a standard set of symbols to analyze a student’s reading process by recording the reader’s oral reading and then marking the oral reading performance.
Informal Reading Inventories (IRIs)
An informal assessment that measures print and meaning processing on a series of graded passages establishing independent, instructional, or frustration level.
The ability to read a text accurately and quickly.
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