1998 National Resource Council Reccomendation of Snow, Burns andGriffin
Schools employ reading specialists who work with sturggling readers and provide support to classroom teachers.
  Reading Specialist Role Requirements
 Expertise in reading assessment and instruction and leadership skills that empower one to work with other adults and the community.
First use of reading specialists historically
1930’s  —  Supervisors who worked with teachers to improve the reading program
What criticism occurred after World War II in regard to children’s literacy?
  The lack of schools’ ability to teach children to read
What was the primary responisiblity of the remedial reading teacher after WWII?
To work with individiual or small groups of students who experienced difficulty  learning to read.
 When did “Remedial Reading Teachers”come into play and why?
After WWII in response to theinability of schools to teach children to read.

What was the difficulty in 1967 with remedial reading specialists
Serving only in an instructional capacity was seen as a “bottomless pit”.
 What did Stauffer propose in 1968?
“The Bottomless Pit” theory and thatreading specialists should serve as consultants.
  1981, Bean and Watson
Promoted the ideal of the reading specialist as a resource role 
  What 3 importances did Bean and Watsonpromote for reading specialists?
Interpersonal, leadership and communication skills
 What factors in 1981 restricted the roles of reading specialists?
Funding to support personnel and research that contributed to new ideas about reading instruction and assessment.
 How have a large percentage of reading specialists been funded in the last 30 years?
Title I of the ESEA
  What is the ESEA or Title 1?
 Compensatory program funded by the federal government to supply supplemental support to students who are economically deprived.
What was the impact of Title I on reading specialists?
If the reading specialist was funded by Title I then they could only work with Title I students and to purchase and use materials and resources for Title I students only.
What led to the development of “pullout” programs?
Policies such as Title I 
  Problems generated by pullout programs
 1. Little congruence between classroom and supplemental2.

No communication between specialist and classroom teacher3. Not enough interactivity no connection to classroom expectations4. “swinging door” dimension

Task of the Reading Specialist in the early days of Title programs.
Documented reading achievement and expectancy of students who might be eligible for compensatory services.

What is the discrepancy formula that was once used to identify a gap between achievement and potential by reading specialists? 
Intelligence qupotient + teacher judgement (test bias) =the gap between achievement and potential.
What was used in place of the discrepancy formula?
Students were identified using their actual reading achievement.
What reading activities for reading specialists were reccommended as opposed to “skill and drill” or workesheets 
More explicit activities of instructionin reading and  writing tasks; more time reading.
Reading specialists were eliminated or downsized or assigned to classroom teaching positions and replaced with inexperienced teachers aides
Strategies implemented in the 1990’s for struggling readers included:
Increasing classroom teacher competence, reducing class size, incorporating technology, afterschool and summer programs, volunteers and aides 
1995 International Reading Association investigated the role of reading specialists in school with what 3 tasks?
1. Analyze literature and research of role of specialist2. Conducted a survey of members to find out what reading specialists were actually doing in schools3. Investigate role of reading specialists in exemplary schools 
Move to more inclass instruction
is now prevalent in primary grade students
Reading Speicialists now work as
a resource to teachers and plan instruction with the classroom teacher on a regular basis
Disturbing finding of the initial IRA survey was
the absence of men and minority groups.

What does the lack of specialists at intermediate, middle school and high school levels result in?
1. reduced potential in student performance level2. lack of assistance to teachers of content level understand how to teach students to read texts more efficiently.
A study of  prinicipals in regards to the vitality of reading specialists came up with the following characteristics of the IDEAL reading specialist

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Teaching ability2. Knowledge of Reading Instruction3. Sensitivity to children with reading difficulties4. Knowledge of assessments5.

Advocacy6. Cooperation with adults7. Knowledge of reading research8. Lifelong learners9. Providers of professional development10. Ability to articulate Reading Philosophy11.


What is the position statement of the International Reading Association?
.Specialists should apply their expertise in assessment, instruction and leadership
Current emphasis on reading demands
better qualified and prepared teachers and support for well prepared individuals who can serve as coach es or mentor for teachers (teacher mentorship)