What is a group ? How are we to approach groups? In this article we review the development of theory about groups. We look at some different definitions of groups, and some of the key dimensions to bear in mind when thinking about them. [pic][pic] Groups are a fundamental part of social life. As we will see they can be very small – just two people – or very large. They can be highly rewarding to their members and to society as a whole, but there are also significant problems and dangers with them. All this makes them an essential focus for research, exploration and action.A group is two or more persons who are interacting with one another in such a manner that each person influences and is influenced by each other person (Shaw 1971).
For a collection of people to be defined as a group, the members must: • interact with one another • be socially attracted to each other • share goals or objectives • have a shared identity which distinguishes them from other groups What is interaction ? Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea of a two-way effect is essential in the concept of interaction, as opposed to a one-way causal effect.A closely related term is interconnectivity, which deals with the interactions of interactions within systems: combinations of many simple interactions can lead to surprising emergent phenomena. Interaction has different tailored meanings in various sciences. Casual examples of interaction outside of science include: i. Communication of any sort, for example two or more people talking to each other, or communication among groups, organizations, nations or states: trade, migration, foreign relations, transportation, ii.The feedback during the operation of machines such as a computer or tool, for example the interaction between a driver and the position of his or her car on the road: by steering the driver influences this position, by observation this information returns to the driver.
Dear Ladies and Gentlemen, We have gathered today to speak about the problems faced in group interaction and ways to overcome these problems. This is very deep theme, and I am sure that anyone has many stories based on the challenges and their overcoming. But today we will concentrate on the issue of overcoming.Before we go through the topic, that is some problem occur during group interaction are: i. Lack of communication is often the result of misunderstandings about the purpose of the group, what it hopes to achieve and the way it should work. Examples can be seen all around you every day and they constitute some of the major people problems you will encounter: ? Anry people shouting because they cannot be understood. ? Frustrated people sulking because no one listened to them. ? Bosses who are frustrated by the activities of the firm’s grapevine.
? Chatterboxes talking at each other rather than to each other. Miserable people who took everything personally. ? Firms that have gone into liquidation because they never got their message across. ? Poor industrial relations because neither party understands the other.
? Silent people opting out because they could not understand. ii. Power Struggles When a group is functioning well, many members in the group are involved and active, taking equal responsibility for sharing the work load. Sometimes the original members of the group may find it difficult to ‘let go’ of these responsibilities, even though they may want to do so. iii.
Colonialism occurs when a racial or ethnic group from one society takes over and dominates the racial or ethnic group(s) of another society. iv. Behaviour As a result of the conceptualization process, parties to the conflict attempt to implement their resolution by behaving in the pattern they have selected as most likely to achieve the desired result. Instant conceptualisation, when the party to the conflict is still feeling frustrated, usually leads to worse behavioral patterns and furthe conflict. The most difficult thing here is to find the right way of solving the problems.Let me to this study investigates how small group interaction influences the development and shared mental models in work group. Small group and teams are social structures ubiquitous in work and personal life. The group experience brings together individuals who interact through communication events.
Successful group interaction requires active group participation. Members may be invited to ask and respond to questions, express opinions, negotiate and give suggestions, all to achieve the objectives of the meeting. Towards this end, every member of the group has a role to play.However, there is usually one person who manages the discussion. This person has to open the discussions, introduce the subject, invite people to contribute ideas, interrupt to seek clarification and finally, close the discussion.
The other members of the group may be required to put forth arguments, substantiate them, negotiate, and seek clarification, etc. If the discussion is managed well, it may turn out to be a most fruitful and enjoyable event. The emphasis in this question is thus on the oral communication skills which group members who need to interact in group should have in order to work effectively in groups.One problem might be having your reality amended by the person in the group that the majority give away their power to. Group interaction is very difficult for an individual to negotiate.
Group interaction is the study of groups, and also a general term for group processes. Relevant to the fields of psychology, sociology, and communication studies, a group is two or more individuals who are connected to each other by social relationships. Because they interact and influence each other, groups develop a number of dynamic processes that separate them from a random collection of individuals.These processes include norms, roles, relations, development, need to belong, social influence, and effects on behaviour. In organizational development of a group normally goes through the following stages (Tuckman 1965): • Forming – the group gets together and a level of formality is common • Storming- heightened tension associated with competition for status and influence • Norming – rules and standards of behaviour are agreed • Performing – group matures to a point where it is able to work together as a team There are many different forms of interaction in a group.We have social interaction (formation of friends) and task interaction (the way the members co-operate to achieve goals) Cohesion This is the extent to which members of a group exhibit a desire to achieve common goals and group identity.
Research (Townsend 1968) tends to support the view that high interaction teams need high task cohesion to be consistently successful, whereas for moderate or low interaction teams cohesion is less important to success. Again, we have social cohesion, extent to which members of the group get on with one another, and task cohesion, the extent to which members cooperate to achieve the group’s goals.The following factors affect cohesion: • Stability – Cohesion develops the longer a group is together with the same members • Similarity- Cohesion develops when the more similar the group members are in terms of age, sex, skills and attitudes • Size – Cohesion develops more quickly in small groups • Support – Cohesive teams tend to have managers and coaches who provide support to team members and encourage them to support one another • Satisfaction- Cohesion is associated with the extent to which team members are pleased with each others performance, behaviour and conformity to the norms of the team Carron (1980) defined a cohesive group as having the following characteristics: • a collective identity • a sense of shared purpose • structured patterns of communication Loafing Loafing is the tendency for individuals to lessen their effort when they are part of a group – also known as Ringelmann effect (Kravitz 1986). Causes of loafing in a team have been attributed to individuals: • perceiving others to be working less hard than themselves thereby giving them an excuse o put in less effort • believing that their own efforts will have little effect on the outcome • disliking hard work and assuming that their lack of effort will not be noticed • feeling “off form” and believing team mates will cover for their lack of effort For a group to perform at its highest level of performance, methods and strategies need to be applied which will improve group productivity and reduce loafing. The subsequent effect will be to improve cohesion and develop positive group dynamics.
Ladies and Gentlemen, There is some practical tips can we used to solve the problem that I had mention above. The feeling of being tongue-tied is familiar to many of us. We admire people who can express their thoughts with fluency and confidence. Some people think that a conversational skill is a gift, while others believe that this is the result of training.
A blabbermouth monopolizes the conversation, turning it into a monologue. I have known a person who was able to talk to anybody with invariable energy and interest. He impressed people by his conversational eloquence. In business communication, conversational skills are an asset to a person’s ability to persuade and negotiate the meaning. Conversational skills are necessary for successful career growth and our pleasant interaction with other people. Commitment and consistency are fundamental to improving conversational skills.
People with conversational skills have more friends and better chances in life, for they know how to promote their ideas and establish relationships.I am going to inform you about the nature of conversational skills, and then I will give you some practical tips that you may find useful. Conversational skills are special tools that make a conversation go. They are learned and trained to become automatic. They control questions, control feedback; help break the ice during unwanted pauses, give an idea of open-ended questions that drive a conversation, elaborate a theme. They are about shifts to another theme, the use of semantic means, combined body language and verbal speech.
Conversational skills make people comfortable while talking to each other. Now, I will give you five ways to improve your conversational techniques. First of all, the speakers should show interest in each other. Healthy uriosity heats up interest. When you ask questions, you intend to be given a response that can drive the conversation.
Second, remember that a conversation is a dialogue with well-balanced talking and listening. Skilful speakers monitor themselves, taking control over taking turns. If you get skilled in taking turns, even talking a little, you will perfect your conversational skills. Third, give genuine compliments for the actions the person who you are talking to has done.
This appraisal must be specific and will do wonders if followed by a tag question. Fourth, your paralanguage may speak louder than words. Bodily expressions have a meaning of their own.Fifth, a skilful speaker employs “What, where, when, who”, “how”, and “if” questions. Conversational skills are acquired through special training.
They help master the art of conversation as a meaning exchange of human thoughts. People are often clumsy and tongue-tied when expressing their thoughts and feelings. They need conversational eloquence, which may be achieved by using conversational techniques. Practice conversational skills with a smile, and this learned art will be yours at the moment when you need it most. For the other way, the verbal communication is the most effective way to give instruction, correction or direction to a group.Without it there can be misunderstandings, frustration and lack of productivity. Verbal communication is essential to have a healthy and fruitful group or team.
It helps set guidelines and boundaries in team dynamics that allow a group to achieve the goal it intends to accomplish. Gives Instruction • Without effective verbal communication the various people in the group may have various understandings of what needs to be accomplished. Instruction increases productivity, which in the end increases the efficiency of the group or team. Verbal instructions also dispel any other ideas or ambitions that are contradictory to the task at hand. Allows for Clarity • Verbal communication in group interaction also provides clarity.
Whenever speaking to a group, there will always be different interpretations of the message being communicated. This is where verbal feedback should be encouraged to get an accurate pulse on how well the group understood the instructions. By verbally communicating, the leader is able to find the loopholes and misunderstandings and deliver a clear message. Provides Direction • Verbal communication provides direction. Many times a group will not have one direction that everyone is moving in together.
Because people operate as individuals, when they join up in a group there be may some people who want to go a different direction than where the leader wants to go.It’s at this point that verbal communication has the power to give clear direction and put a stop to the pulling in different directions. Power of Persuasion • Verbal communication in group interaction also has the power to persuade. This can be seen in religious and political circles. As a group follows a particular political or religious leader, the leader is given power to persuade the group to follow her beliefs or convictions. Another example is called group think.
Group think is the communication theory that states that any particular group will slowly begin to think like one another until each member of the group thinks very much like every other one. Encourages Resolve Verbal communication has the ability to provide resolve in situations that may be in conflict. Allowing the members of the group to express their thoughts and feelings will provide an opportunity for resolve within the group. During the resolution process, each individual member of the group will learn something from the group discussion, making the team stronger and more close-knit.
Conclusion: Although the group interactions may cause problems, but the benefits of group interactions are learning and understanding various cultures and opinions, teaching each other, gathering ideas for future group experiences, as well as learning about oneself.Working with others not just teaches you about the individuals and the assignment, but also about yourself and how you work with others. You can find out your skills and weaknesses, your pet peeves, test your ability to adapt to different personalities and environments, and in general end with a skill or knowledge you did not previously have.
Developing good communication skills is possible only after you get a command over the language. As we all know, learning how to speak a language fluently is not an overnight job. It requires consistent practice for several months or even years. Hopefully, this article will help you take steps forward in the right direction and improve your communication techniques. Here is where I conclude by wishing you all the best!