1.
INTRODUCTION


Nowadays,
the development of science plays a crucial role in the evolution of our
society.


Although
this scientific progress is pretty rapid and stunning, researchers and
scientists always keep finding themselves in the middle of a dilemma concerning
research ethics.


Thus, abiding by the high ethical standards in any research is a common
consideration in the scientific community.


2.
ETHICS


The
word ‘ethics’ originates from the Greek word ‘ethos’, meaning custom or
behavior.


The
concept of ethics, initially suggested by the Greek philosopher Aristotle, was
developed to analyze social and individual values, their interconnection and
their hierarchy in the society.

    Law and Ethics are not the same thing;


 Most societies have legal rules that regulate
behavior (=laws), but ethical norms tend to be more extended and more
informal than laws.


 Ethical behavior conforms to the commonly
acknowledged social norms.

 


3. RESEARCH
ETHICS

            Moreover, ethical standards serve
the objectives of research and are applicable to scientists, students and
people conducting creative activities.

Research ethics promote sincerity
and integrity during all the phases of the research, from data collection
to publication.
Research standards are deeply
integrated into the way scientists work. The reliability and the
scientific acknowledgement of their work depends upon adhering to these
ethics.
Many of the
ethical principles in science relate to the production of unbiased
scientific knowledge, which is critical when others try to
extend the research’s findings.


4.IMPORTANCE
OF RESEARCH ETHICS

Research
ethics ensure :

Ø 
The
accuracy of scientific knowledge.

Ø 
Protecting
intellectual property rights.

Ø 
Preventing
the fabrication or falsifying of data and therefore, promoting the pursuit of
knowledge and truth.

Ø 
Encouraging
an environment of trust, accountability, and mutual respect among
researchers in collaborative work.       This is crucial when considering issues
related to data sharing, co-authorship, copyright guidelines, confidentiality…

Ø 
assuring
the public that researchers followed the appropriate guidelines for issues such
as human rights, animal welfare, compliance with the law, conflicts of
interest, safety, health standards… 


5.
CODES AND POLICIES FOR RESEARCH ETHICS

Honesty in reporting data, results,
methods, procedures, and publication status. Data must not be fabricated,
falsified or misrepresented.
Objectivity by avoiding bias in
experimental design, data analysis, data interpretation, peer review,
personnel decisions, grant writing and expert testimony.
Integrity : The researcher must keep his
promises and agreements; act with sincerity; strive for consistency of
thought and action.
Carefulness by avoiding careless
errors and negligence. The researcher must Keep a good records of research
activities, such as data collection, research design, and correspondence
with agencies or journals.
Openness : Sharing data, results, ideas,
tools, resources and being open to criticism and new ideas.

Respect for Intellectual
Property: Honoring
patents, copyrights, and other forms of intellectual property, not using
unpublished data, methods, or results without permission and giving proper
acknowledgement or credit for all contributions to research.
Confidentiality: Protecting confidential
communications, such as papers or grants submitted for publication,
personnel records, trade or military secrets, and patient records.
Responsible Publication: The scientist must publish in
order to advance science, not to advance just his own career. Wasteful and
duplicative publication must be avoided.
Responsible Mentoring: The researcher must Help to
educate, mentor, and advise students. He must promote their welfare and
allow them to make their own decisions.
Respect for colleagues: The researcher must respect his
colleagues and treat them fairly.

Social Responsibility: Strive to promote social good
and prevent or mitigate social harms through research, public education,
and advocacy.
Non-Discrimination: Avoid discrimination against
colleagues or students on the basis of sex, race, ethnicity, or other
factors not related to scientific competence and integrity.
Competence: The researcher must maintain
and improve his own professional competence and expertise through lifelong
education and learning.
Legality: The scientist must know and
obey relevant laws and institutional and governmental policies.
Animal Care: Animals should be treated with
care and respect when used in research.
Human Subjects Protection: When conducting research on
human subjects, harms and risks should be minimized and benefits should be
maximized. In addition, human dignity, privacy, and autonomy must be
respected.


6.
ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE RESEARCHER

The
researcher must :

ü 
Ensure
a positive contribution to science.

ü 
Be
sincere and trustworthy.

ü 
Avoid
any kind of discrimination.

ü 
Give
proper credit.

ü 
Ensure
confidentiality and anonymity.

ü 
Respect
the privacy of others.

ü 
Honor
the research ethics.

ü 
Treat
subjects (humans or animals) well.

ü 
Reduce
coercive or reward responses.

     Each individual scientist has the ethical
responsibility to seek knowledge and improve the quality of life.

  Requirements of a scientist:

ü 
Competence,

ü 
Accuracy
in results reporting,

ü 
Honesty
in resources managing,

ü 
Acknowledging
others,

ü 
Considering
the consequences.


7.
SCIENTIFIC MISCONDUCT

What Can
Be Considered a Case of Scientific Misconduct?

     Scientific misconduct is “the violation of
the standard codes of ethical behavior in professional scientific research”.
The term Scientific Misconduct can be used only if the misconduct is intentional
and willful.

 

     Scientific misconduct can be considered
the willful ignorance of data, evidence of falsifying,
skewing of data or deliberate misrepresentation of data.
Scientific misconduct can also be considered the misuse of human
subjects.


Although
several cases of scientific misconduct has hit the media since the 1980’s
and projected the reality of the situation, scientific misconduct is way
older than that.

     It is estimated that some of the
greatest minds in science have either fabricated results, or skewed data to
support their theories.

Examples:


“Isaac Newton may have adjusted calculations to fit
observations.”


“Gregor Mendel’s results with pea plants were
cleaner than what is observed experimentally, indicating that he might have changed
the data.”


“Robert Millikan, in a research paper describing
the charge of an electron, failed to mention that he eliminated some data
points.”

Insufficient  and
undisciplined research.
Duplicated publication.
Data slicing.
Ignoring major aspects of
human-subject requirements.
Dropping observations or data
points from
analyses based on a gut feeling that they were inaccurate.
Problematic data presentation
or analysis.
Falsification: The manipulation of research
material, equipment, processes, or changing  or omitting data or results thus
affecting accuracy of reporting.
Fabrication: Making up results and
recording or reporting them.
Plagiarism: “The unauthorized use or
close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the
representation of them as one’s own original work”.
Plagiarism-fabrication: Taking an unrelated figure
from an unrelated publication and reproducing it exactly in a new
publication.

Self plagiarism.
Guest/ Gift authorship : Where there is stated
authorship in the absence of involvement.
Ghost-writing: Where someone other than the
named athor makes a major contribution.
Coercion authorship : The practice of being
pressured to give authorship  to individuals
because of their positions.
Inappropriate claims of
authorship.
Undisclosed conflicts of interest.
Copyright Infringement.
Mutual support / admiration
authorship :
The practice of authors placing each other’s names on papers even though
they made little or no direct contributions.
Unapproved authorship: Listing someone as author who
has not agreed to be an author or not consulted about authorship.
Faulty data-gathering
procedures.
Poor data-gathering procedures.


Examples
of scientific misconduct : example 1


Charles Dawson (born in 1864) made by the late 19th century
important fossil discoveries.


His
most famous discovery, came in late 1912: a new species that
represented the missing link between man and ape : the “Piltdown Man”.


This
discovery made quite an impact, confounding the scientific community for
decades, long after Dawson’s death in 1915.  


Examples
of scientific misconduct : example 2


During
World War II, the Nazis committed wretched and inhumane things in the
concentration camps between 1933 and 1945.


A
total of sixteen German physicians practiced unethical medical experiments on
Jews, gypsies, and political prisoners Inmates .These experiments that were
excruciatingly painful and usually resulted in death.


8.
REASONS FOR UNETHICAL BEHAVIOR

People act
unethically for a number of reasons:

ü 
Underestimating
the consequences of unethical behavior.

ü 
According
more importance to  the quantity
of publication over their quality.

ü 
Aiming
for academic credit, promotion, fame, 
incentive bonus and recognition.

ü 
Weakness
of moral and scientific ethical values.

ü 
Trying
to avoid, reading, wondering, reasoning and analytical thinking by using
ready to use informations.

ü 
Students
who have a tendency to disobey research ethics in their student life,
continue to do so in their academic life.

ü 
The
emergence of counterfeit thesis fraud in the recent years.


9.
MEASURES TO PREVENT UNETHICAL BEHAVIOR IN RESEARCH AND PUBLISHING

Ø 
General
and Managerial Measures

Ø 
Legal Measures

Ø 
Technical
Measures


9.1.
General and Managerial Measures

ü 
Educate
people about  the importance of following
research ethics and raise awareness about the consequences of scientific
misconduct.

ü 
Encourage
students since an early age to be original and express themselves without the
need to steal other’s ideas

ü 
Provide
the researcher with sufficient funds and good working conditions and avoid
applying any kind of administrative or financial pressure on him.

ü 
The
researcher must  keep an archive of
documents including detailed informations about the conducted experiences for
at least 5 years .

ü 
The
researcher must look beyond the idea of increasing the number of his
publications and focus more on their quality and their benefit society.

ü 
Scientists
and researchers who commit scientific misconduct must be punished.


9.2.
Legal Measures

    Unethical behavior can have terrible
consequences in any workplace :

Ø 
Suspension,

Ø 
Expulsion,

Ø 
Loss
of professional credibility,

Ø 
Imprisonment
(for severe copyright infringement cases),

Ø 
Loss
of professional license or degree,

Ø 
Future
professional career prospects can be damaged,

Ø 
A
breach of ethics is considered very serious, punishable at least within the
profession (by revocation of a license, for example) and sometimes by
the law as well.

   From plagiarism.org: 

   In USA “Most cases of plagiarism are
considered misdemeanors, punishable by fines of anywhere between $100 and
$50,000 — and up to one year in jail. Plagiarism can also be considered a
felony under certain state and federal laws. For example, if a plagiarist
copies and earns more than $2,500 from copyrighted material, he or she may face
up to $250,000 in fines and up to ten years in jail.”


9.3.Technical
Measures

     Different plagiarism detection
softwares are available. The following list contains some of the most
effective free plagiarism detection tools on the Internet:


Plagium
: http://www.plagium.com/


Plagscan:
https://www.plagscan.com/docman#


Dupli
checker : https://www.duplichecker.com/


Copyleaks:
https://copyleaks.com/


PaperRater:
https://www.paperrater.com


Plagiarisma:
http://www.plagiarisma.net/


Pagiarism
checker: http://www.plagiarismchecker.com/


Quetext:
https://www.quetext.com


EduBirdie:
https://edubirdie.com/plagiarism-checker


Searching
Engine Reports: https://searchenginereports.net/plagiarism-checker


Small
Seo Tools: https://smallseotools.com/plagiarism-checker/


10.
CONSEQUENCES OF PLAGIARISM

The
consequences unethical research include:


For students :

     The reputation of the student can be destroyed.
He can get suspended or expelled. In addition, his academic record can reflect
the ethics offense reducing his chances to enter college.


For Academics:

    Once scarred with plagiarism allegations,
an academic’s career is ruined depriving him from the ability to publish in the
future.

    If the original author sues the  plagiarist who stole his idea, he can be
granted monetary restitution.