This research paper is about prostate cancer. It discusses the signs and the symptoms of the disease, the treatments that can be used on the disease, and the various methods that are used in the treatment of the disease. The methods that the specialists have invented to diagnose the disease are also discussed. Prostate cancer Introduction Prostate cancer can be defined as the tumor that forms in the tissues of the prostate gland, found in the male reproductive system, in front of the rectum and below the bladder.

It is characterized by tumors that are caused by an unregulated proliferation of cells, and eventually, these cells spread to other body parts. Incidence The risk of developing prostate cancer becomes high as the person gets older. It is a common disease among the older men, normally above the age of 65. According to the National Cancer Institute, (NCI) a third of all American men are who are over age 50 have microscopic symptoms of prostate cancer. However, the disease has also been diagnosed in men who are 40 years.

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Recent research has shown that In America, Prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer in American men after lung cancer. It is the leading cause of death in America for men diagnosed with cancer, especially those over 85 years. Among the African American men, it is said that one out of every seven has prostate cancer, while among the Caucasian men; one of every eight is diagnosed with the disease (NCI). The exact reason for this difference has not yet been known. Prostate cancer is lowest among the Asian men, while European men are the second lowest people to be diagnosed with prostate cancer.

The differences may be due to the environmental conditions and other risk factors or due to the differences in the various types of diagnosing methods. Studies have shown that if prostate cancer is diagnosed early enough, the patient can be expected to live even up to five years. However, most men are not diagnosed early, hence the high mortality rate of prostate cancer patients. Of late, the mortality rate has decreased, mainly due to increased screening of the disease. Pathophysiology This is the study of the various body parts that are affected by various functional problems or diseases.

The problems may be of a physical or biochemical nature. Pathophysiological studies on prostate cancer have shown that there are several steps in which it forms. Normal cells in the prostate are unable to control their multiplication. They increase abnormally and fail to respond to the factors controlling the division of the cells. They then turn in to cancer causing cells. Prostate cancer may start from the cells of the prostate gland. This type of prostate cancer is called adenocarcinoma. The other type is called the angular prostate cancer, and it starts at the cells that secrete semen in the prostate gland.

Adenocarcinoma may begin at the minor arts of the prostate gland, and may not seem to be a malignant tumor at the start. On the other hand, the angular prostate cancer starts at the cells that secrete the semen, especially during the mutation of these cells. This leads to the uncontrollable growth of the cancer cells. As the cancer progresses, the cancer cells change their role and start playing that which they are not programmed to perform. They turn in to malignant cells and start attacking the lymph nodes if the cancer is the spreading type.

During the advanced stages of the prostate cancer, it can spread to other areas of the body like the liver, lungs or the blood. A cancer that spreads to other areas is called the metastatic cancer and is at its worst stage in the patient’s body. If diagnosis is done at this stage, the prostate cancer patient can not live for more than five years. Pathophysiology is the only way in which the scientists can understand the causes of prostate cancer in a better way. Although the causes for prostate cancer have not been well understood, scientists have identified environmental factors and the biochemical factors as the major causes of cancer.

Others are the high intake of fat from warm blooded animals, since it causes an abnormal growth of the prostate cells. There has also been proof that if the level of testosterone in a man is high, then he is more prone to cancer than the man with a low testosterone level. Also, prostate cancer has been said to be hereditary, so a man from a family with a history of prostate cancer is in danger of inheriting the disease, especially in his old age. (Pathophysiology is the Key to Prostate Cancer’s Treatment 09/22/2007)