What are the Key Characteristics of qualitative research?
Researcher is the key instrument.

subjectivenatural environmentpurpose is to understand reality from insider valuescomplete picture is soughtMultiple sources of data.inductive data analysisParticipant meaningemergent designinterpretive inquiryholistic

When should researchers use qualitative research?
Because a problem or issue needs exploringThere is a need to study a group that can be measured.To hear silenced voicesWe need a complex detailed understanding.
What is required of a researcher to undertake qualitative research?
Commitment to extensive time in the field.complex data analysiswrite long passages to substantiate claims.participate in evolving research without firm guidelines.

What is the process for the qualitative approach.
Determine research problem and questionscollect datadata analysisreport
move from specific to general (used in qualitative research)arguments based on laws and rules for deductive reasoning (quantitative)
******TYPES OF SAMPLING******Maximum
documents diverse variations and identify common patterns
Homogeneous?Critical case?
reduces and simplifies qroup interviewsMaximum application of information to other cases
Theory basedConfirming
elaborates on examples of theoretical constructselaborates on initial analysis
extreme casetypical caseintensity
Highly unusual manifestationhighlights what is normalmanifest the phenomenon intensely but not extremely
politicalrandom purposeful
attracts desired attentionadds credibility
illustrates subgroupscases that meet certain criteriatake advantage of the unexpected
triangulationsaves time and money loses info and credibility
Types of problem best suited for phenomenology?
described a lived experience or phenomenon
Types of problem best suited for ethnography?
describing patterns of culture
Types of problem best suited for grounded theory?
grounding a theory based on participants views
Types of problem best suited for narrative?
telling a story of individual participants
Types of problem best suited for case study?
an in debt understanding of a case
Unit of analysis for phenomenon?
several individuals
Unit of analysis for ethnography?
shared cultures or groups
Unit of analysis for grounded theory?
studying a process involving many
Unit of analysis for narrative?
one or more individuals
Unit of analysis for case study?
event or phenomenon
Discipline background for Phenomenon?
Philosophy, psychology and education
Discipline background for ethnography?
Discipline background for grounded theory
Discipline background for narrative?
humanities, psychology, sociology, literature, anthropology, history
Discipline background for case study?
law, political science, psychology
Data collection forms for phenomenology?
interview and documents
Data collection forms for ethnography?
observation and interview
Data collection forms for grounded theory?
interviews (20-60 people)
Data collection forms for narrative
interview and documents
Data collection forms for case study?
multiple sources(interview, artifacts, documents, and observations)
Data analysis strategies for phenomenology?
analyze for meaning, textual, structural, statements
Data analysis strategies for ethnography?
analyze data through the description of cultural group
Data analysis strategies for grounded theory?
analyze data based on coding
Data analysis strategies for narrative?
analyze data for stories or themes
Data analysis strategies for case studies?
analyze data through description of cases
Advantages of qualitative research
more in debt informationsubjectivity and participant observations describe setting or contextseeks wide understanding of the situation
disadvantage of qualitative research?
subjectivity makes reliability and validity difficultdifficult to prevent or determine biaslimited scope
What is the focus of phenomenology?
understand the essence of the experience
What is the focus of ethnography?
describe a culture sharing group
What is the focus of grounded theory?
move beyond description and develop a theory grounded from the field.
What is the focus of narrative?
exploring the life of an individual
What is the focus of case study?
develop an in depth description of a case or multiple cases in a bounded system.
What can a researcher do to maintain validity in qualitative research?
be a listenerrecord accuratelyinclude primary datainclude all databe candidseek feedbackachieve balance
define purposive and snowball sampling?
purposive- sample is selected because of who they are or what they know.snowball sampling- when subjects recommend you talk to other people.
Define corroboration
making sure your findings are accurate1. triangulation2.

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inquiry audit3. peer briefing

Types of participant observation?
passive- present at scene no interactionbalance- researcher seeks balance between insider and outsiderexternal- television or video observationactive- researcher does what others in the setting dototal-researcher is a natural participant
Name the 7 steps in data collection
locate sitegain access to sitesamplecollect datarecord dataresolve field issuesstore data
Gate keeper
person who helps you gain access
key informant
person who can point you in the right direction
emic perspective
insider perspective, getting into the heads of the group (nerd)
etic perspective
using external scientific views that researchers use that are not part of the culture.
ethic principals
respect for personsbeneficence- minimize risk and maximize benefitsrespect for community
grand tour questions
open ended questions that allow interviewee to set the direction
Define qualitative methodology
Qualitative research is investigative activity that studies variables in the natural setting. Interaction between the variables is important.
What is the aim of qualitative researchers?
to make sense of or interpret phenomena in terms of the meaning people bring to them.
What is data saturation?
when researcher is no longer reviewing data.
What is the difference between data analysis in quantitative and qualitative research?
data analysis take place throughout the research in qualitative as opposed to at the end of qualitative.
is the belief that the whole is better than the sum of it’s parts.