Republic of the PhilippinesCARAGASTATE UNIVERSITYSENIOR HIGHSCHOOL P.O. Box 165, Ampayon, 8600 Butuan City,PhilippinesTel. No. (085) 342 6251www.carsu.
edu.ph General Biology 2 -Galilie Florence Jhun F.Almadin Cyrel O.
LaysonJanuary24,2018 INTRODUCTIONSickness unpredictably influencesindividuals of any age, from the earliest appearances of inborn geneticdisorders in infants, to the late-beginning neurodegenerative conditions thattorment our old generation.In1916, The Krabbe Diseasewas discovered in Denmark by a Danish specialist Knud Krabbe. Knud discovered the disease when he saw thatkids were crying for no reason and were having some other symptoms for noreason. (Adhit S 2014 ).
. Krabbe disease (galactosylceramide lipidosis) is aquickly dynamic demyelinating issue of newborn children caused by lackingmovement of the chemical galactosylceramide ?-galactosidase (Wenger et.al.,2007). This type of disease also happen in adults .
Transmission is viaautosomal passive legacy, and the quality maps to chromosome 14.Galactosylceramide is put away inside multinucleated macrophages of the whitematter of the focal sensory system, shaping globoid cells. Later on,Collier and Greenfield (1924) usedthe term globoid to describe these abnormal scavenger cells,which are characteristic for this disorder. In 1970 (Malone,Suzuki ,Sazuki) reportedthat tissue samples from patients with Krabbedisease could not degrade galactosylceramide due to a deficiency ofgalactocerebrosidase (GALC) activity. Galactosylceramide is produced during thelysosomal degradation of sulfatide. These two glycosphingolipids are importantfor healthy, stable myelin.
The measurement of GALC activity in leukocytes,fibroblasts, and fetal-derived cells can identify patients with Krabbe disease both postnatally andprenatally.Few years after discovery many experimental animal models ofgloboid cell leukodystrophy are used.They are helpful to research the compoundpathogenesis of GALC lack and to investigate techniques for successfultreatment. In addition , the mouse and dog models have been utilized forquality treatment trials, neural undeveloped cell transplantation, , substratedecrease treatment, and cytokine infusions, alone or in various combination.While no medications have brought about a “cure,” a few medicineshave lead to a significant extension of the lives of the treated animals.
(RafiM.A 2016) PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Krabbe disease or globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD), is an autosomalrecessive disorder resulting from a deficiency in an enzyme known asgalactocerebrosidase (GALC). This enzyme is responsible for thedegradation of galactocerebroside to ceramide and of galactosylsphingosine,otherwise called psychosine to sphingosine. Galactocerebroside is a majorcomponent of myelin (Haddad R.
S 2017).Myelin isn’t unusual in these people,however the protein insufficiency causes a problem in substrates. During the first 18 months of life this isparticularly critical when myelin development and turnover are high. It is theincreased galactosylsphingosine levels that are toxic and lead to thedestruction of oligodendroglia and impaired Schwann cell function in the CNSand to demyelination. The undegraded substrates accumulate in multinucleatedmacrophages in demyelinated regions of the brain. These “globoid”cells portray this ailment, which is otherwise called globoid cellleukodystrophy (Wenger D., Luzi P. 2014)Krabbe disease wrecksthose myelin sheaths of the central and the peripheral nervous system.
Thoseenzyme galactocerebroside ?-galactosidase regularly removes galactose fromgalactosylceramide (galactocerebroside, a complex glycosphingolipid), which isa major component of the myelin sheath. When the enzymatic degradation isblocked, galactocerebroside accumulates inside hematogenous macrophages, thegloboid cells, which are the microscopic hallmark of the disease in braintissue. A second galactose-containing compound, galactosphingosine(psychosine), is also a substrate for the enzyme. When the enzyme is missing,psychosine concentration is increased. Psychosine is toxic to oligodendrocytes,the cells that build and support the myelin membranes. (Tsuji S.2007)Krabbe disease is very rare.
According to the Mayo Clinic, the disease affects about 1 in every 100,000people in the United States. It occurs most frequently in people ofScandinavian descent. A child has a one in four chance of developing thedisorder if both parents have the defective gene. (Cafasso J. Kim S 2016) CLINICAL MANIFESTATION Infantile Krabbedisease, the most frequently encountered form,is a dramatic disease that strikes young, healthy-looking infants and leads toprofound disability within a few months (Hagberg et al., 1970). The diseasebegins acutely at 4–6 months of age the hallmark symptoms of the infantile form include restlessness, progressive stiffness, irritability, hypersensitivity,psychomotor arrest and hypertonia. This is followed by rapid mental and motordeterioration, seizures and optic atrophy.
Death usually ensues within thefirst two years of life and there is currently no cure (Davenport et.al 2011). Convulsions can grow however are not really of anepileptic nature. They may rather speak to tonic fits that seem excruciatingand are actuated by outer boosts, for example, touch, sudden splendid light, ornoise. It is critical for administration to perceive this kind of seizure-likeconditions, as they don’t react to anticonvulsive medications. An eruption tocommotion, for example, being startled has been named hyperacusis.
Deafness mayhappen .Optic atrophy is frequently seen. The infants show increased musculartone, with few spontaneous movements.
Muscle stretch reflexes are difficult toelicit and can be absent. The combination of signs pointing to the first motorneuron (spasticity) and in the mean time to the second motor neuron (loss ofreflexes) is a clue to the presence of a systemic disorder affecting the myelinsheaths of the central and the peripheral nervous system. Terminally, infantsare flaccid and develop bulbar signs. Life expectancy is barely more than 2years. ( Kohlschütter A. ,2013)Late-beginningtypes of Krabbe illness may show themselves in adolescence or in adulthood, thereal extent in the vicinity of 3 and 10 years old, however a few patients havebeen solid into their forties or even up to the age of 60.
While more uncommonthan the juvenile shape, they are as a rule progressively perceived through theutilization of neuroimaging methods and enzymatic or sub-atomic hereditarytesting (Kolodny et al., 1991; De Gasperi et al., 1999; Wenger et al., 2001).In late-beginning cases, neurological indications most usually incorporate agradually developing spastic paraparesis. Less regularly the dominating sideeffects incorporate an engine and tangible neuropathy, hemiparesis, cerebellarataxia, or cortical visual deficiency.
Scholarly capacities may stay unaffectedfor a long time. Most patients with late-beginning structures have indicatedfast decay at first, trailed by a more slow movement going on for quite awhile. At times a patient’s condition appeared to settle and even make strides.What’s more, noteworthy interfamilial inconstancy of clinical discoveries hasbeen found in a few families. Such perceptions make it hard to assess theviability of potential new medicines in late-beginning patients (Lim et al.
,2008). MEDICAL MANAGEMENT There is no cure for Krabbe disease. In any case, the thefollowing treatments might be given to patients to help reduce their sideeffects such as anticonvulsant prescription to stop seizures, muscle relaxerdrugs (to enable straightforwardness to muscle spasms),physical treatment toassist moderate crumbling of muscles,occupational treatment with helping moreseasoned youngsters with regular errands, for example, getting dressed andeating .Researchhas discovered two methods that may affect the movement of Krabbe disease, asopposed to simply treating the side effects: bone marrow transplantation andline blood transplantation.Durig this procedure, a man with Krabbe disease receives cells from a healthy person .
Thenew cells can make the GALC enzyme that the patient couldn’t make his or herown. Both of these strategies have dangers of their own. ( Prasad V.
K. ,Kurtzberg J.,2009)In bone marrow transplantation an adult will donate some bone marrow (a material foundin bones) to replace the bone marrow in the child who has Krabbe disease. Thebest results have been only in patients with late-onset Krabbe disease who havebeen treated before severe symptoms develop. It has not been helpful in infantswith early-onset Krabbe disease who have already developed symptoms.On theother hand ,in the cord blood transfusion a doctor will transfuse cord bloodstem cells into the patient. The cells are taken from the umbilical cord of adonor who is not related to the patient. However, this procedure has also beenshown to help only those patients treated before symptoms appear.
( PrasadV.K. , Kurtzberg J., 2009) REFERENCESElectronic Sources / Basic format (Internetsites)1Adhit S (2014 March 10). KrabbeDisease/Globoid Cell Leukodystrophy.Retrievedfromhttps://prezi.com/e-op_vruqysp/krabbe-diseasegloboid-cell-leukodystrophy/ 7 Haddad R.
S (2017).Krabbe Disease,medscape.Retrived from https://emedicine.medscape.
com/article/951722-overview12 Kohlschütter A. (2013 ).Lysosomal leukodystrophies: Krabbe disease and metachromatic leukodystrophy.
Retrivedfrom https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B97804445956520002906Rafi M.A (2016 June15).Gene therapy forCNS diseases – Krabbe disease.Retrived fromhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.
nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4981250/https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-and-biological-sciences/krabbe-disease 9Tsuji S.(2007,September 28).Neurobiology ofdisease.Retrived fromhttps://www.
sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780120885923500062 Electronic Sources/ Multiple Authors(InternetSources)10Cafasso J. Kim S (2016, January 20). Krabbe Disease: Causes, Symptoms .Retrieved fromhttps://www.
healthline.com/health/krabbe-disease3Collier,Greenfield (1924). Globoid cell leukodystrophy. Retrived from http://www.medlink.com/article/globoid_cell_leukodystrophy11Davenport et.
al(2007).Competing onAnalytics: The New Science of Winning.Retrived from https://www.
researchgate.net/publication/275712863_Competing_on_Analytics_The_New_Science_of_Winning 13Kolodny ,De Gasperi, Wenger (2001).Genetics of primary progressive multiplesclerosis.Retrived from https://www.sciencedirect.
com/science/article/pii/B978044459565200029014Lim et.al (2008).Stem CellTransplantation for Adult-Onset Krabbe Disease: Report of a Case.Retrivedfrom https://www.ncbi.nlm.
nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3755578/4,5Malone,Suzuki(1970). Globoid cell leukodystrophy. Retrived fromhttp://www.
medlink.com/article/globoid_cell_leukodystrophy1516 Prasad V.K. , Kurtzberg J.( 2009,November 16 ).Cord blood and bone marrowtransplantation in inherited.Retrived from http://onlinelibrary.
07974.x/pdf2 Wengeret.al. (2007). A Microglial Hypothesis of Globoid Cell LeukodystrophyPathology. Retrieved fromhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.
nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5027969/8Wenger D., Luzi P.( 2014,November 7).Krabbe Disease: Globoid CellLeukodystrophy.Retrived fromhttps://www.sciencedirect.
com/science/article/pii/B9780124105294000309 Journal,References,Magazines,ect.Wenger,D. A.
, Suzuki, K., Suzuki, Y. and Suzuki, K.(2001). GalactosylceramideLipidosis: Globoid Cell Leukodystrophy (Krabbe Disease), pp.