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Marielle D. Donaire                                               Submitted
to: Prof. Gerry Villano

Subject:  Socio 118 Sociological Theories                      Schedule: TFr 1:00-2:30


1.    What distinguishes sociology from
other sciences?

?Sociology is the scientific study of
social or human interaction. Sociology defines human as a member of society.
And it now studies the effect of the human behavior to the society and as well
as  how society affects on how human behaves
as a social being. Sociology is different from other social sciences because of
the above definition. Also, other sciences study and focuses on the other
aspects. Psychology, for example, studies human minds and mental issues of an
individual rather than as a group nor a social interactions. Sociology differs
from other social sciences specifically because it is the only one that is
specially concerned with the interaction between human beings and their


2.    Why are the precursors of modern
social science still important?

?In order for us to fully understand
one thing, we should always go back and search on how it all started. History
always plays a big role in defining everything in the world. This is why
precursors of modern social sciences are still important because these were the
one that influenced and leads the development of what we have now call the
modern social sciences.


3.    Why is it enlightening to make ones
implicit theories explicit?

?To make one’s own theories explicit
is very enlightening rather than to make it stay implicit all the way. It is
because in order for others to understand your propositions it should not be
vague instead your thoughts should always be expressed clearly and completely
formed or developed.


4.    Why can classical sociological theory
be important to contemporary social scientists?

?Classical sociological theory is
important not only historically but also because these theories are living
documents that werevery relevant. Classical thinkers’ works continue to inspire
modern sociologists in a variety of ways. Classical sociological theorist such
as Auguste Comte, Karl Marx, Herbert Spencer, Emile Durkheim and Max Weber
produced important works during their time that played a relevant role in the
development of Sociology. The work of these theorists continue to be more
relevant as time came when contemporary sociologists arise and read those works
as basis and foundation. Contemporary thinkers reinterpret those theories by
applying them to the contemporary scenes and issues in the social world.


5.    What is the relationship between
religious and scientific knowledge according to Comte?

?Comte defines religion as ” the
state of complete harmony peculiar to human life … when all the parts of
life are ordered in their natural relations to each other ” (1851,v. 2, 8;
E., v. 2, 8). On the other hand, according to Comte, science is also a
spiritual basis of social order and not only as the rational basis for our
action upon nature. Comte’s positivism transformed science into philosophy;
complete positivism transforms philosophy into religion. In formulating ideas,
Comte believed that scientists do not go against and opposse religion but
rather use and test those ideas that came out to this world as religious
revelations. Comte tries to understand on how scientific knowledge came out
from religious knowledge which results on the idea that religious abstracts are
necessary for the evolution of scientific knowledge.


6.    What was Comte main motive to write
his classical book ” The course on the positive philosophy”?

? For me, Comte’s main motive in
writing his classical book “The Course on the Positive Philosophy” is
to use the knowledge of positivism in affecting the course of social change and
improve the human condition. Comte generally believe that true knowledge is
only found through science,  for he
assumes that there are truths about society that can be discovered through
scientific studies and that our understanding of society should be based on
actual data and evidence. So, I believed that Comte wrote this book to mainly
influence or change our ways of thinking in completely understanding society.