Gluconeogenesis is the production of new form of glucose, a simple sugar, from non-carbohydrate sources such as glycerol, lactate and glucogenic amino acids. It is made primarily in the liver or kidney . The steps in gluconeogenesis are, firstly, the non-carbohydrate source is converted into pyruvic acid, then into oxaloacetate, then in to phosphoenolpyruvate and then finally into glucose. This glucose is then released in to the body which provides energy to the body from non-carbohydrate sources. As stated above, the process of gluconeogenesis starts with pyruvic acid and ends with glucose.
The process of glycolysis starts with glucose and ends with pyruvic acid and so the process of glycolysis is known as the reversal of the gluconeogenesis process. Somehow, few steps in the middle of the process is different from Gluconeogenesis process. The process of gluconeogenesis is present in animals, plants, fungi and other microorganisms. The production of glucose from gluconeogenesis is the new form of glucose because normally glucose for the purpose of energy comes from carbohydrates. Normal blood glucose levels are maintained with the help of the gluconeogenesis by synthesis of glucose .
This process actually occurs in the fasting state. It requires the presence of lactate, amino acids, and glycerol. By the balance of various hormones particularly insulin from pancreas and cortisol from the cortex of the adrenal glands, the process of gluconeogenesis is controlled. After 24 hours of fasting or so, when liver glycogen is used up completely, then the liver has to make glucose from non-carbohydrate sources. This is the process of gluconeogenesis. But fats cannot be turned back into glucose. Diabetes is a growing health problem.
Diabetes is a disease which affects the body’s capability to use glucose . Diabetes is all about maintaining insulin to handle glucose, which is the main source of energy. In diabetes, insulin could not be produced and the body produces high levels of blood glucose which produces the symptoms of the disease diabetes. The amount of glucose in the body should be sufficient for the diabetic patients. Here, the process of gluconeogenesis plays an important role. Where there is lack of food-derived glucose in the body, the body tries to produce its own glucose through an important process called gluconeogenesis.
In this process, amino acids are used. If amino acids are not available, protein from muscle tissue will be broken down to produce amino acids. An alternative source for the energy in the body is ketones. After the carbohydrate restriction or long period of starvation, keytones are formed to supplement glucose produced from the Gluconeogenesis process. This process takes place when there is not enough insulin. Actually, Gluconeogenesis is the process inhibited by insulin and promoted by glucagon. It is implemented between meals. In this way gluconeogenesis is related to diabetics.