Schedule DevelopmentNumerous projects was unsuccessfulto meet schedule predictionbecause of lack of schedule development to overcomethis. There are methods which used for project schedule.
Such as critical path method and PERT method 1. Critical path method (CPM)Thisis the method which is used calculate the time duration which is taken byproject. The critical path method help to estimate the time which used toschedule development. Critical method used by many organization to estimate thetime duration because in a single project there are multiple tasks running simultaneouslyCPM able to show which task take how much time to complete .
there are two wayto calculate CPM forward pass and backward pass .Which help to estimate earliesttime for the project the longest path is consider as Critical path . Because itincluded all Critical element.
TheCritical path method is network diagram which have nodes in it .Every node havetask and value assigning to it by find the relationship between the node and aftercalculating the node value we come to know the Critical path For example:The critical path is the chain of activities withthe longest time taken duration. A slow up inany of these activities will result in a delay for the whole project.
This critical path example help us tounderstand the how this method work. Using the Critical Path Method (CPM)Theduration of each activity is listed above each node in the diagram. For eachpath, add the duration of each node to determine it’s total duration. Thecritical path is the one with the longest duration. Thereare three paths through this project.Start-> Activity1->Activity3->Activity4->finish 3+7+2=12Start-> Activity2->Activity3->Activity4->finish 5+7+2=14 (Critical Path)Start-> Activity2->Activity5-> finish 5+4=9 Advantages of CPM· Makes dependencies visible between the projectactivities· Increases visibility of impact of schedule revisions· Enables the Project Manager to optimize efficiencyDisadvantages of CPM· For large and complex projects, there’ll be thousands ofactivities and dependency relationship· The Critical Path Method does not accountfor resource and resource allocation 2. Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) Second method is PERT .
It was initially usedby defiance in their Polaris project .In this method the activities timeduration is found.By using these following formula:Duration = And,Standard Deviation = This network analysis is a method used to approximateproject time duration when there is a unpredictabilityoccurs in the individual activity time duration approximates.
PERT applies thecritical path method (CPM) to a weighted average time duration approximate.This approach was developed about the same time as CPM, in the late 1950s, andalso uses network diagrams concept, which are still sometimes referred to asPERT charts. PERT uses probabilistic time approximates duration. Approximationbased on using optimistic time, most likely time and pessimistic time approximatesof activity durations instead of one specific or discrete duration approximate,as CPM does .By using the PERT weighted average for each activity duration approximate,the total project duration approximate takes into account the risk oruncertainty in the individual activity estimate.
For example:Suppose a project team in the project caseused PERT to determine the schedule for the online application registrationsystem project. They would have to collect data for the optimistic, mostlikely, and pessimistic duration approximates for each project activity. Supposeone of the activities was to design an input screen for the system. Someonemight approximate that it would take about two weeks or 10 workdays to do thisactivity. Without using PERT, the duration approximate for that activity wouldbe 10 workdays. Using PERT, the project team would also need to approximate thepessimistic and optimistic times for completing this activity. Suppose anoptimistic approximate is that the input screen can be designed in eight workdays,and a pessimistic time approximate is 24 workdays.
Applying the PERT formula:PERT weighted average = = 12Instead of using the most likely duration approximateof 10 workdays, the project team would use 12 workdays .These additional twodays could really help the project team in getting the work completed on time. Advantage of PERT· A PERT chart makes planninglarge projects easier· PERT is a way of makingrelationships visible in a diagram· PERT makes the critical pathvisibleDisadvantage of PERT· PERT charts can becomplicated and confusing, with hundreds or even thousands of tasks anddependency relationships· PERT diagrams can be expensiveto develop, update and maintain.· PERT charts depend on theability to predict precise time frames for multitudes of tasks