According to Walsh et al. (2002) schizophrenia is brain disabling, severe, and chronic disorder that affects human population throughout human history. For instance, 1% of Americans both male and female are affected by Schizophrenia disorder (p. 492). Amazingly, individuals affected by Schizophrenia disorder are able to hear voices other normal people unable to hear, belief other people plot harm on them or read their, thus make them to be agitated or withdraw.

Moreover, people affected with schizophrenia disorder may have difficulties holding to a job or care for them selves well, but most cope with their symptoms throughout their lifetime (Mueser and McGurk, 2004). Therefore, in this way schizophrenia disorder not only affects the person who exhibits the symptoms, but also the entire community or society. Symptoms associated with schizophrenia disorder are classified into three categories such as cognitive, positive and negative symptoms (Walsh et al. , 2002, p. 491).

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Positive symptoms involve all psychotic behaviors that a person affected exhibit that are not normal to a healthy person. These positive symptoms may be unnoticeable or come and go, but in summing their effect is that they make a person “lose touch” with reality. Some of the pronounced positive symptoms of schizophrenia disorder include hallucinations in form of patient hearing voice about his or her behavior, sees or smell things a health person can not see, smell (Walsh et al. , 2002). Additionally, hallucinations may be in form of seeing imaginary people or objects or feeling intangible touch.

Other positive symptom is delusions in sense that affected person may believe notions that are not true. For example believing neighbors control his or her behavior via magnetic waves, or television or radio broadcasting their thoughts to public a loud or even become paranoid that some people want to harm, spy, and poison or cheat them. As a result of delusion, thought disorders may develop as other positive symptoms where a patient exhibit disorganized or dysfunctional thinking due to failure in connecting his or her thought logically.

Furthermore, movement disorder may also characterize positive symptoms of schizophrenia disorder in form of agitated body movements and extreme become catatonic (Blanchard et al. , 2000). Negative symptoms of schizophrenia disorder concern all those symptoms that disrupt patient’s normal behaviors and emotions (Mueser and McGurk, 2004). However, it should be noted that these symptoms are usually difficulty to recognize as they are similar to those of depression (Blanchard et al. , 2000).

Despite the difficulty, health scholars identify negative symptoms as little speaking, inability to start or/ad sustain planned activities, lat affect or dull when talking, and lack of pleasure in daily life endeavors. These symptoms, people with these symptoms are proved to be fit and able to assist in daily chores though may neglect personal hygiene due to effect of schizophrenia disorder. Cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia disorder are also difficult to distinguish to be part of the schizophrenia disorder, but determined after test as done (Greig et al. , 2007).

Due to this fact, some symptoms remain contentious. Contention not withstanding, cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia disorder that are universally accepted include difficulty in paying attention, poor executive function or inability to properly utilize information for decision making, and difficulties arising from working memory or inability in using learnt information after learning it (Greig et al. , 2007, p. 159).. It is a point of worth to mention that cognitive symptoms usually make it difficulty for the patient to live a normal life ad thus my result to emotional distress.

Research greatly indicates that major cause of schizophrenia disorder is attributed to genes and environment (Walsh et al. , 2002). In this regard, schizophrenia disorder has been discovered to run in families. However, genes play a very big role in causation of schizophrenia disorder as 10% of patients have a first-degree relative with disorder (Walsh et al. , 2002; Harrison and Weinberger, 2005). However, fascinating fact is that genes by themselves do not cause disease. Instead, schizophrenic genes inherited cause mutation in genetic make up of the offspring.

Thereafter this gene mutation disrupts brain development of an individual who has inherited the gene. Therefore, brain development of a child should be closely monitored as he or she progresses through other advanced stages of life. However, the effect of genes disrupting brain by causing mutation in genetic make up is not enough to cause disorder. Thus, for disorder to develop it requires genes interaction with social environment (Mueser and McGurk, 2004). Social environment aspect that aggravate is the processes of socialization of an individual.

Social risk factors such as relationship and family environment, social isolation, stressful relationships and drug or substance abuse are cited to likely cause development of disorder (Masi et al. , 2006). Therefore, right socialization processes reduce risk of developing the disorder. In conclusion, Schizophrenia disorder is daunting challenge to our society today. However, Mueser and McGurk (2004) confirms that there is hope for the disorder patients as it is treatable by varieties of antipsychotic medications such as Chlorpromazine (Thorazine), Perphenazine (Etrafon, Trilafon), Haloperidol (Haldol), and Fluphenazine (Prolixin) (p. 2068).

Additionally, there is psychosocial treatment that is aimed at social behavior change in daily illness. Such treatments are illness management skills, Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), integrated treatment for co-occurring substance abuse, and family education for support and family relationship issues (Mueser and McGurk, 2004, p. 2069). References Blanchard, J. J. , Brown, S. A. , Horan, W. P. and Sherwood, A. R. (2000). Substance use disorders in schizophrenia: Reviews, integration and a proposed model. Clinical Psychological Review, Vol. 20:207-234. Greig, T. C, Zito, W. , Wexler, B. E. , Fiszdon, J. , and Bell, M. D. (2007).

Improved cognitive function in schizophrenia after one year of cognitive training and vocational services. Schizophrenia Research, Vol. 96(1-3):156-161. Harrison, P. J. and Weinberger, D. R. (2005). Schizophrenia genes, gene expression, and neuropathology: on the matter of their convergence. Molecular Psychiatry, vol. 10 (1):40-68. Huang, H. S. , Matevossian, A. , Whittle, C. , Kim, S. Y. , Schumacher, A. , Baker, S. P, and Akbarian, S. (2007). Prefrontal dysfunction in schizophrenia involves missed-lineage leukemia 1-regulated histone methylation at GABAergic gene promoters. Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 17; 27(42):11254-11262.