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Consider possible methods b. Review existing knowledgePhase 4 a. Implement instructional strategies b.Make corrections as appropriatePhase 5a. Select assessment devices b. collect evidence of student growthPhase 6a.
Judge success of strategies b. makes planning adjustments c. Match outcome to expectations
Six – Step cycle of Instruction Delivery
1. Determine teaching tasks 2. Match objectives to student abilities 3. Design the instructional process 4. Deliver the planned curriculum 5.
Use feedback to analyze curriculum and instruction 6. Adjust instructional delivery
A thought Process, structured by teacher, that employs the description,classification,and analysis of more than one system,group, or the like in order to ascertain and evaluate similarities and differences
A one-to-one interaction between teacher and learner in which the learner’s needs and problems can be dealt with. Diagnosis,evaluation.and prescription may all be involved.
An activity in which the teacher or another person uses examples,experiments, or other actual performance,or a combination of these to illustrate a principle or show others how to do something(model)
The continuous determination of the nature of learning difficulties and deficiencies, used in teaching as a basis for the selection, day by day or movement by movement,of appropriate content and methods of instruction
Guided observation provided for the purpose of improving the study,understanding ,and evaluation of that which is observed
An activity in which pupils, under teacher or pupil direction,or both,exchange points of view concerning a topic,question, or problem to arrive at a decision or conclusion
An orderly, repetitive learning activity intended to help develop or fix a specific skill or aspect of knowledge
An activity involving a planned procedure accompanied by either control of conditions or a controlled variation of conditions, or both, together with observation of results for the purpose of discovering relationships and evaluating the reasonableness of a specific hypothesis
Educational work experience, sometimes fully paid,acquired by pupils in a practical service situation.
An educational trip to places where pupils can study the content of instruction directly in its functional setting, for example, factory, newspaper office, or fire department.
Two levels of planning
Preparation and Delivery
Preparation;andDelivery of; a lesson
Decisions about classroom variables.Physical environment – ( formal or informal)Furniture arrangement (communication or lecture style)Walls ( stimulating or unfocused and bland)Instructional materials ( available or retrieved); Consider instructional time (pacing)Classroom Management and DisciplineResources and Media
Example of simplified classroom standards
A secure learning environmentA personal and caring program of studiesA developmentally appropriate delivery by the teacherA use of the best tools, research, and methodsA program focusing on high academic standards
Modern Instructional Theory
Students naturally engage in making sense out of their worlds.
Students lack experience but not reasoning ability.Teachers understand patterns not noticed by novice learners.Teachers demonstrate the context of knowledge application.Technology can help students visualize and understand.Technology can access an array of information.
Behavioral Learning Theory
Sees classroom from an external standpoint.assumes learning occurs because of something the teacher does to the student.Student is neutral until activated by teacher.Dteacher controlled.irect instruction ot mastery learning:Teacher delivers specfic structures and predetermined(standard based) lessons without accommodating student needs or differences.
Developmental Learning Theory
Focuses instruction on the needs and developmental stages of growth in the student.teacher presents a predetermined and structured curriculum but adjusts the curriculum to meet student needs.Student motivation is high.
Perceptual Learning Theory
Students are the keys to learning.Teacher deliverStudents filter the input through prior knowledge to get meaning.Classroom climate importantteacher is a guide on the side.
2010 Elementary Curriculum includes:Implementation of national standard in reading ,writing, and mathematics.Use of performance- based assessments with rubricsCompetency – based instructionAcademic skills placement tests.State standards and frameworks along with the assessment items and benchmark tests.Portifolio assessment systemsAlignment of the curriculum through a deliberate approach designed to teach essential learning skills in a systematic and sequential manner.
1. Flesch reading Ease Score; – checking word length and sentences length2.
Wheeler and smith Index Number -; Involves determining sentence length and number of polysyllabic words3. Cloze Technique – compares twp pieces of material: measure redundancy.4.
Lorge grade -Placement Score Uses averages sentence length in words,number of difficult words per 100 words,number of prepositional phrases per 100 words5. Fry Graph -; Average number of syllables per 100 words andd average number of sentences per 100 words in three randomly selected 100 -word samples6. SMOG Grading Plan – counting repetition of polysyllabic words.7. Spache Grade Level Score – average sentence length and number of words outside the Dale list
Involves keeping special education students in regular education classrooms and taking support services to the child rather than bringing the child to support services.
Integrated Instructional Systems (IIS)
Instructional systems that are replacing older computer -assisted instruction (CAI) systems.
Two or more students working together on a learning task.