Horizontal Change
Change within an age group. 
Vertical Change
Dictated by development as child gets older.
How many disability groups are recognized by special education legislation?
Students with high incidence disabilities make up what percentage of those served in special education?
A student has a disability, but is served in a regular classroom and is expected to meet the state standards of learning. What kind of disability does that student have?
High incidence disability.

A student needs ongoing support and services throughout their life. They participate in alternative state assesments. This student stays in the public school system until 21 or 26. What type of disability does this student have?
Low incidence disability
Which two factors caused the Victorian era to bring the social climate towards those with disabilities in a negative direction? 
New concerns about morality and the discovery of heritability.
What is the principle of opportunity?
Any child should be allowed to enroll in any class open to other children, with no prior restrictions placed on participation.


What is the principle of proof?
continuance in a class or other educational activity was based on the ability to meet the standards
Accroding to the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, what is a unit?
The satisfactory completion of a class that met 5 days a week for a minumum of 40 minutes/ 120 hours a year.
When did IQ tests become popular?
Around WWI
What did the widespread use of IQ tests reveal?
The number of persons who scored what was thought to be below normal was much larger than expected. 
Post WWII, what was the structure of the educational classes special ed students received?
Exclusive, with self contained classes and schools. These were often called “opportunity” classes and programs.”
What journals provided teachers with step-by-step instructions for teaching skilles in trades, service occupations, and various unskilled and semiskilled labor jobs?
Hungerford’s Occupational Education
When was vocational education first developed?
Early 1900s
What did vocational education initially focus on?
skill training for a trade
What is the normalization principle?
people with disabilities have the right to as normal an existance as possible
Wolfensburg emphasized that normalization included what?
the need for vocational preparation and occupations for individuals with mental retardation to live in the community
What act paved the way for individuals with disabilites to participate in society?
1964 Civil Rights Act
What approached used task analysis to break down the skill being performed and provide multiple methods for teaching a task?
the “Try Another Way” method
___________ is the choice, opportunity, and ability to participate actively in the community through home and family life, work, and civic and recreational involvement.

independent living
What was the first legislation that clearly made a comitment to the provision of vocational rehabilitation services to persons with more significant disabilities?
The Rehabilitation Act of 1973
Describe the “bridges” model.
High school was the foundation to three pathways to employment: no services, time limited services and ongoing services
What was the first legislation that mandated that transition services be addressed in a student’s IEP?
Individuals With Disabilites Act
The Division on Career Development and Transition wanted transition to be what 5 things?
1: involved coordination of school programs and adult agencies2: started in elementary and middle school3: guided by the concept of career development4: begin no later than 145: have the student involved with the process
According to the IDEA amendments, when MUST a student’s IEP include transition plans?
16, though in some states, 14
When should self determination be taught?
While students with disabilities are still in school.;
How are the practices of the Taxonomy for Transition Practices categorized?
1: Student focused planning2: Student development3: integracy and interdisciplinary collaboration4: family involvement5: program structure and attributes
_______ refers to expressive skills and listening skills.
Communication skills
_________ refers to reading skills, written language, math comprehension, math computation.

Academic skills
Academic performance should also focus on getting students to use what?
_________ begins with awareness of and value for one’s self. 
Self determination skills
Once a person has some self awareness skills, they should have the basic information to do what?
make goals, plan an action to meet those goals, and anticipate some specific result
What is another name for socialization skills?
Interpersonal relationship skills
When are interpersonal relationship skills used?
in famile, school and community relationships
What does knowledge of interpersonal relationship skills include?
Knowing socially appropriate behavior and understanding how cultural, moral, ethical, legal and religious influences guide one’s individual social behavior.;
__________ is knowledge about how to access community interest settings and knowledge of skills in participating in these settings.
Integrated Community Participation Skills
__________ covers health concerns as well as physical fitness skills.;
Health and fitness skills
When do students with disabilities need to use technology?
at home, in school and in the community
__________ can include low and high tech devices and services that assist students in becomeing more independent at home, school, in the community and at work.

Assistive technology
Why must students with disabilities be taught about leisure and recreational skills?
Leisure, recreation and play are part of the human experience and essential to health and well being.
What are mobility skills?
Skills that allow a person to get around their community and arrange for transportation as necessary.
__________ can include adaptive behaviors, such as basic food preparation, dressing, use of transportation, personal hygeine, etc.
Independent/interdependent living skills.
__________ refers to general emplyability skills, occupational skills and vocational skills.

Work readiness skills
_________ refers to readiness for any formal education or training experience after leaving the public school setting.
College readiness skills
When is a student entitiled to receive services?
Once they are evaluated for and have met the criteria for specail education, they are entitled to a free and appropriate education until graduating.
What does it mean to be eligible for services?
To be eligible for services, you must apply for them and be determined to be so. Eligibility differs by agency.
In 1970, how many children with disabilites were educated?
1 in 5
How many children in the US are provided services under special education law?
6.5 million
_____________ is the federal agency that is responsibe for providing leadership and funding to assist states and local districts in improving services for students with disabilities from birth to age 21.
Office of Special Education, US Depatment of Education
What is the EHA?
Education for All Handicapped Children Act
What is OSEP?
Office of Special Education
What is the USDOE?
United States Department of Education
What was the landmark legislation that provided all children with disabilites the right ot a free and appropriate public education?;
Education for All Handicapped Children Act
According to EHA, what are the requirements for the evaluation process to determine if the student needs special education?
Evaluation must be nondiscriminatoryMust be conducted by a multidisciplinary teamparents must be notified
What six principles are the foundation of special education services today in Part B of IDEA 2004?

  1. Free and appropriate education
  2. least restrictive enviornment
  3. IEP
  4. nondiscriminatory evaluation
  5. due process for parents
  6. parental participation

__________ authorized $6.6 million to develop and support school to work transitions for youths with disabilities.
Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments of 1983
What three things did the Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments of 1986 do?

  1. funded research projects to investigate postsecondary outcomes for students with disabilites who had dropped out of school
  2. mandated provision of services for infants and toddlers with disabilities
  3. increased spectrum of services from birth to age 21


What does OSERS stand for?
Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services
_______ spotlighted school-to-work transition as a national priority and provided a model for secondary special educators to bridge the gap between school and work
What does REI stand for?
Regular Education Initiative
___________ emphasized the need to move individual with disabilities out of sheltered workshops and into community jobs with ongoing support.
Supported Employment Initiative
___________ spotlighted the need to merge regular and special education to address the needs of all students in the classroom.
In 1990 the EHA was amended and renamed what?
What does IDEA stand for?
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
What was the first legislation that mandated a statement od needed transitional services to be included in the student’s IEP by age 16?
What did IDEA 1997 do?
Changed the age requirement for addressing transition services from 16 to 14
What gave states the option to transfer age of majority rights at least one year before the student reached the age of the majority? 
IDEA 1997
What does NCLB stand for?
No Child Left Behind
_____ refers to English, reading, language arts, math, science, foreign languages, civics, government, economics, arts, history and geography. 
Core Academic Subjects
The final regulations for IDEA 2004 clarify that “core academic content” must what?
Be the same for all students
What is a Highly Qualified Special Educator?
a teacher who has state certification as a special ed teacher and is not teaching a core academic subject
What does Universal Design for Learning call for?

  1. multiple ways for students to acquire information and knowledge
  2. alternatives to demonstrate what they know
  3. students to become engaged in learning and increased motivation

_________ must summarize the student’s academic acheivement and functional performance along with reccomendations for how the student will meet his or her postsecondary goals.;
Summary of Performance
What does SOP stand for?
Summary of Performance
What does UDL stand for?
Universal Design for Learning
What are indicatiors 13 and 14 focused on?
What does indicatior 13 focus on?
IEP and transition services
What does Indicator 14 focus on?
students actual postsecondary outcomes
What does RSA stand for?
Rehabilitative Services Administration
__________ administers formula and discretionary grant programs that serve individuals with disabilities.;