What are the three foundations of Hinduism
Karma, Dharma, Samsara
What is Karma
Every thought and action affects your fate in your next life
What is Dharma
your duties and responsibilities
What is Samsara
Reincarnation
What are the four types of goals in Hinduism
Kama, Artha, Dharma, Moksha
What is Kama
pleasure (the things you like)
What is Artha
wealth and power (the things you want)
What is the Dharma goal
Doing what is right (the things you hope to offer to society)
What is the moksha goal
goals for existence or spiritual goals
What is the Indus Valley Civilization
Early people who practiced Hinduism; were vanished by the Aryans
What is the Aryan invasion
conquers the Indus river valley bringing the Sanskrit languages and more influences of Hinduism.
What is Sanskrit
the Hindu written sacred language
What is the Vedas
The Hindu text that contains eternal truths revealed to wise men; stories, myths, chants, etc. orally passed down until finally written in Sanskrit
What is the Ramayana
a Hindu epic poem of god (Rama) and wife (Sita)
What is the Mahabharata
a Hindu epic poem of royal brothers regaining their kingdom
what is Brahman
a single supreme force that contains all the Hindu gods (nameless, formless, unlimited)
What Hindu gods are part of the trimurti
Brahma, Vishnu, Siva (shiva)
What is the hindu god, Brahma
the Creator
What Is the hindu god, Vishnu
the preserver
What is the hindu god, siva
the destroyer
Where is hindu worship centered
the home
what is a Mandir
a hindu temple
What are Hindu death practices
the body is cremated and scattered over the Ganges River
What is Atman
an essential self (a part of the universal soul)
What is Moksha
Freeing the soul from the body so it can unite with Brahman
What is the Caste system
Hindu social groups based on birth
What is Kumbh Mela
the world’s greatest religious fair that is held every 12 years where Hindus bath in the Holy Ganges River
What is the Murti
image/ statue of the main dieties in the main shrine room: Hinduism
What is puja
Hindu religious worship
What is the tilak
mark on the head of the murti: hinduism
What is the arti lamp
contains 5 flames for the 5 senses enables one to see god or be seen by god: hinduism
What is hindu prasad
blessed food that has been offered to the god of the mandir
What is mantras
verses from the hindu holy book
How do Hindus earn good karma (5)
follow their dharma, do their puja, meditate, go on pilgrimages, and follow a guru
What is ashramas
a stage of life that can alter dharma
What are the 4 stages of ashramas
student(focus on learning scripture and education), householder (married and working wife), retirement (more time for meditation and temple puja), ascetic (optional- give up material things and become wandering monks)
What 2 things can alter dharma
caste and ashramas
What are the 5 parts of the caste system
Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, Sudras, Dalits
What job do Brahmins have
priest and scholars
What job do Kashatriyas have
Warriors and rulers
What job do Vaisyas have
herders, farmers, artisians, merchants
What job do sudras have
peasant farmers
What job do dalits have
work with dirt, death, or blood
What is Moksha
union with the Brahman
What is ahimsa
non-violence
What is the role of meditation
practice of skill of paying attention
What is a guru
a spiritual teacher that perfected the Hindu religion in teachings
What are some things pilgrims do at Varanasi
face east and pray, drink Ganges river water
What are the 6 rules of caste?
each occupation has its own caste determined by birth; marriage must be within the caste; castes have their own cooking and eating habits; castes are tied to Hindu beliefs about keeping people spiritually pure; caste influences which gods are worshipped, where one lives, and what one wears; caste influences behavior between people
what is interdependence within the caste system
the caste system created a sense of stability and order in Indian life
Who was Siddhartha Gautama
left a life of luxury and set out to find the cause of misery; became enlightened
What 4 sights did Gautama see
old man, sick man, dead man, human meditating
What are the 4 noble truths of Buddhism
suffering is universal- pain, sickness, and death are inevitable; the origin of suffering is desire and non-virtue; Cessation of suffering: the only way to stop the suffering is to crush desire and other forms of non-virtue; to end desire follow the eightfold path
What is the eightfold path
a practical guide to right conduct it stresses compassion for all creatures, kindness, and truthfulness
What are the 8 parts of the eightfold path
right view, right intentions, right speech, right actions, right livelihood, right effort, right concentration, right mindfulness
What are the 5 precepts
not to kill anything, not to steal, not to lie, to avoid alcohol, and not to engage in improper sexual activity
What do Buddhist monks and nuns agree not to do
eat anything after the noon hour, wear any jewelry or ornaments, sleep on a soft bed, participate in any king of entertainment, use money
What is the “middle way”
not asceticism, nor self indulgence
What is nirvana
the Buddhist belief of salvation where individual self escapes the body
What are the three jewels
“I take refuge in the Buddha; I take refuge in the dharma; I take refuge in the sangha”
What is the sangha
refers to the community of monks and nuns and the whole community of believers
What does dharma mean for Buddhists
refer to all that the Buddha taught
What is the sitar
a hindu musical instrument played during ragas to make a meditative state
What is enlightenment
understanding the cause and cure of suffering
What is the three baskets of wisdom (Tipitaka)
followers passed Buddhist teachings by mouth which were written down as this; the most important of the Buddhist writings
What are the characteristics of Theravada Buddhism
“Teachings of the elders” monastic life is needed to achieve Nirvana; lay people further their karma by supporting monks and nuns; each person must find their way to Nirvana alone; prevalent in south-east asia; do not worship the Buddha or any other God
What are the characteristics of Mahayana Buddhism
“Greater Vehicle” believe that you need the help of others to attain Nirvana and it can be done in different ways; many follow the teachings of Bodhisattvas and offer prayers and worship to the enlightened ones and to the Buddha
What is a Bodhisattva
someone who has already become enlightened but has willingly delayed entry to Nirvana to help others get there
What is Tantric Buddhism (Tibetan)
a mix of traditional Buddhism with Tibetan spiritual practice uses meditation, music, chants, dances, and mystical charms to please spirits; uses mandalas
What is a mandalas
intricate designs of artwork made out of sand to center on meditation
Who is the Dalai Lama
The bodhisattva of compassion or the reincarnated bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara
What is Zen Buddhism
intense use of meditation and contemplating objects in nature will lead to enlightenment
What is a stupa
a burial mound some of which contain relics, ashes, hair clippings of Buddhist saints; the most sacred Buddhist sight
What is a pagoda
evolved from decorated parasols that were originally at the top of stupas houses relics
who is the lord mahavir/ mahavira
the last of the 24 believed great teachers
what is tirthankaras
the 24 teachers who attained all knowledge while living and preached it to the people
what is Jina
god for jains which is their goal to become of
What is moksha
all knowledge
what are the certain rules jains follow to get rid of ones karma(5)
Ahimsa (non-violence), Satya (to speak truth), Asteya (to not steal), Brahmacharya (to not commit adultery), aparigraha (to limit one’s possessions)
What are characteristics of the svetambara Jainism
“white clad”, liberal in their interpretations of mahavirals teaching regarding nudity and allow their monks to wear a white garment, women may also find salvation
WHat are characteristics of the digambara jains
“sky clad”, traditionalists, adhere to the old ideals that require monks to go naked, believe women have no chance of achieving salvation
what are the 5 k’s
kanga (comb- cleanliness), Kesh (uncut hair- spiritual), Kara (steel bangle- unity, learning),Kirpan (sword- respect, justice), Kachera (shorts- modesty)
What is a gurdwara
a Sikh temple or gateway to the guru
Who is guru nanak
teacher of Sikhism who was succeeded by 9 other gurus
what is Guru Granth Sanib
Sikh bible; the book of guru nanak
What is the golden temple in punjab
surrounded by a sacred pool (pool of nectar) which was built of white marble covered with copper which stands on an island
What are the four major Sikh beliefs
one god, equality, birth and death, non-violence
How do Sikhs get good karma (4 principles of Sikhism)
Naam Japna or Simran (meditation), Kirat Karni (work), Wand Chakna (charity donations), Sewa (service to humanity and god
What are the ghats
the steps that lead to the ganges river