special transportation, counseling, physical therapy, visual aids, communication devices, disciplining students with disabilities, and right to education
determining whether or not the infraction had something to do with their disability
extends civil rights protection of persons with disabilities to private sector employment, all public services, public accommodations, and transportation
Americans with Disabilities Education Act (ADA)
(1954) The case established the right of all children to an equal opportunity for an education
Brown V. Topeka Board of Education
(1972) Seven children had been excluded from the public schools in Washington, DC, because of learning and behavior problems. The school district contended that it did not have enough money to provide special education programs for them. The court ruled that financial problems cannot be allowed to have a greater impact on children with disabilities than on students without disabilities and ordered the schools to readmit the children and serve them appropriately
Mills v. Board of Education
(1970) A Spanish-speaking student in CA had been placed in a special class for children with mental retardation based on the results of intelligence tests given in English. The court ruled that children cannot be placed in special education on the basis of culturally biased tests or tests given in other than the child’s native language.
;;;Diana V. State Board of Education
;;THe court ruled that children with disabilities cannot be excluded from school for any misbehavior that is disability-related (in this case, “aggressive behavior against other students” on part of two “emotionally handicapped” students”) but that educational services could cease if the misbehavior is not related to the disability.
This class-action suit established the right to free public education for all children with mental retardation
Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Citizens V. the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (PARC)
Members seek to provide services in a uniform and integrated fashion by conducting joint assessments, sharing information and expertise across discipline boundaries, and selecting goals and interventions that are discipline free (the most difficult to accomplish)
characterized by formal channel of communication between members; although each professional usually conducts discipline specific assessments, the interdisciplinary team meets to share information and develop intervention plans
composed of professionals from different disciplines who work independently of one another; each member conducts assessments, plans interventions, and delivers services
Percentage of school-aged children in special education
Percentage of children who receive all or part of the education in the regular classroom
extends civil rights to people with disabilities. Not only are school children protected under this act, adults are as well.
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
improve the achievement of all students, children to be proficient in reading and math and be taught by qualified teachers.
Six Major Principles of IDEA
Nondiscriminatory Identification and Evaluation
Numbers, Percentages, and ages of Children receiving special education services
Over 6 million children and youth with disabilities between 3 and 21 receive special education services.
Four Largest Categories in Special Education
specific learning disabilities
speech and language impairments
One Teaching/ One Helping
Continuum of Services
Homebound or hospital
General Education Classroom with supplementary instruction and services
GEC w/ consultation
Provide immediate instructional and behavioral assistance
Responsiveness to intervention
6 Major Principles of IDEA
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Zero Reject: schools must educate all children w/ disabilities
Nondiscriminatory Identification and Evaluation: must use nonbiased methods of evaluation
FAPE: IEP must be developed for child receiving spec. ed.
LRE: children w/ disabilities must be educated w/ children without disabilities to the maximum extent appropriate
Due Process: Parent’s and children’s rights protected
Parent Participation: Schools must collaborate with parents.
7 Components of IEP
a statement of present levels of educational performance
a statement of annual goals/ how child will be assessed
a statement of special education and related services
an explanation of the extent to which the student will not participate with non-disabled children
the projected date for beginning and duration of services
beginning at 16, individual transition plan must be developed
Arguments for/ Against Full Inclusion
continuum of alternative placements should be dismantled and all students with disabilities placed in GEC
Full inclusion as a matter of social justice
Degree of integration into the mainstream
no support in eliminating the continuum of alternative placements
Differences between IEP & IFSP
IFSP for infants and toddlers from birth to age 3; focuses on familyIEP for ages 3 and 21
Barriers that may exist with students and parents of diverse backgrounds
knowledge of the school system
recognizes that parents have a great deal to offer as well as a need to receive services from special educators. attempts to give parents an equal part in deciding what services they need and what services they might provide to professionals or other parents.
Gonzalez Mena’s “RERUN” theory
Home-School Communication Techniques
Parent-Teacher ConferencesWritten CommunicationTelephone Communication
Factors for increased parent involvement
families know children better than anyone elsegreat interest in seeing child learnonly group of adults involved in child’s educational program throughout the school yearmust live with outcomes of decisions