a problem encountered when interacting with the environment
    children who have a greater-than-usual chance of developing a disability
   “At Risk”
   the loss or reduced function  of a body part or organ
   when an impairment limits the ability to perform certain tasks
   differ from the norm (either below or above) to such an extent that they require an individualized program of special education to meet their needs
   exceptional children (exceptionality)
   must be developed and implemented to meet the unique needs of each student with a disability.


    IEP [individualized education program]
   provide early intervention in the form of scientifically validated instruction to all children in the school whose performance suggests that they are at risk for school failure
    RTI [responsiveness to intervention]
   children with disabilities must be educated with children without disabilities to the maximum extent appropriate
   LRE [least restrictive environment]
    In 1975, P.L. 94-142, The Education of All Handicapped Children Act (EACHA) was later renamed and protects children with special needs
    IDEA [Individuals with Disabilities Education Act]
   individually planned, specialized, intensive, goal-directed instruction
    special education
   special transportation, counseling, physical therapy, visual aids, communication devices, disciplining students with disabilities, and right to education
    related services
   determining whether or not the infraction had something to do with their disability
    manifestation determination
   extends civil rights protection of persons with disabilities to private sector employment, all public services, public accommodations, and transportation
   Americans with Disabilities Education Act (ADA)
  (1954)  The case established the right of all children to an equal opportunity for an education
   Brown V. Topeka Board of Education
 (1972) Seven children had been excluded from the public schools in Washington, DC, because of learning and behavior problems.  The school district contended that it did not have enough money to provide special education programs for them.  The court ruled that financial problems cannot be allowed to have a greater impact on children with disabilities than on students without disabilities and ordered the schools to readmit the children and serve them appropriately
   Mills v. Board of Education
   (1970) A Spanish-speaking student in CA had been placed in a special class for children with mental retardation based on the results of intelligence tests given in English.  The court ruled that children cannot be placed in special education on the basis of culturally biased tests or tests given in other than the child’s native language.

;;;Diana V. State Board of Education
;;THe court ruled that children with disabilities cannot be excluded from school for any misbehavior that is disability-related (in this case, “aggressive behavior against other students” on part of two “emotionally handicapped” students”) but that educational services could cease if the misbehavior is not related to the disability.
  Honig V.


  This class-action suit established the right to free public education for all children with mental retardation
   Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Citizens V. the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (PARC)
   Members seek to provide services in a uniform and integrated fashion by conducting joint assessments, sharing information and expertise across discipline boundaries, and selecting goals and interventions that are discipline free (the most difficult to accomplish)
   Transdisciplinary teams
  characterized by formal channel of communication between members; although each professional usually conducts discipline specific assessments, the interdisciplinary team meets to share information and develop intervention plans
   interdisciplinary teams
  composed of professionals from different disciplines who work independently of one another; each member conducts assessments, plans interventions, and delivers services
  multidisciplinary teams
   Percentage of school-aged children in special education
   Percentage of children who receive all or part of the education in the regular classroom
    extends civil rights to people with disabilities.  Not only are school children protected under this act, adults are as well.
   Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
  improve the achievement of all students, children to be proficient in reading and math and be taught by qualified teachers.
   NCLB goals
   Six Major Principles of IDEA

  1. Zero Reject
  2. Nondiscriminatory Identification and Evaluation
  3. FAPE
  4. LRE
  5. Due Process
  6. Parent Participation

  Numbers, Percentages, and ages of Children receiving special education services
  Over 6 million children and youth with disabilities between 3 and 21 receive special education services.
   Four Largest Categories in Special Education

  1. specific learning disabilities
  2. speech and language impairments
  3. mental retardation
  4. emotional disturbance

   Co-Teaching Concepts 

  1. One Teaching/ One Helping
  2. Parallel Teaching
  3. Station Teaching
  4. Alternative Teaching
  5. Team Teaching

   Continuum of Services

  1. Homebound or hospital
  2. Residential school
  3. Separate School
  4. Separate Classroom
  5. Resource Room
  6. General Education Classroom with supplementary instruction and services
  7. GEC w/ consultation
  8. GEC


  1. Provide immediate instructional and behavioral assistance 
  2. Responsiveness to intervention

   Pre-Referral Intervention
  6 Major Principles of IDEA

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  1. Zero Reject: schools must educate all children w/ disabilities
  2. Nondiscriminatory Identification and Evaluation: must use nonbiased methods of evaluation
  3. FAPE: IEP must be developed for child receiving spec. ed.


  4. LRE: children w/ disabilities must be educated w/ children without disabilities to the maximum extent appropriate
  5. Due Process: Parent’s and children’s rights protected
  6. Parent Participation: Schools must collaborate with parents.

   7 Components of IEP

  1. a statement of present levels of educational performance
  2. a statement of annual goals/ how child will be assessed
  3. a statement of special education and related services
  4. an explanation of the extent to which the student will not participate with non-disabled children
  5. individual modifications
  6. the projected date for beginning and duration of services
  7. beginning at 16, individual transition plan must be developed

   Arguments for/ Against Full Inclusion

  1. continuum of alternative placements should be dismantled and all students with disabilities placed in GEC
  2. Full inclusion as a matter of social justice 
  3. Degree of integration into the mainstream
  4. no support in eliminating the continuum of alternative placements 


    Differences between IEP & IFSP
  IFSP for infants and toddlers from birth to age 3; focuses on familyIEP for ages 3 and 21
   Barriers that may exist with students and parents of diverse backgrounds

  1. language skills
  2. home-school partnerships
  3. work interference
  4. knowledge of the school system
  5. self-confidence
  6. past experiences 

   recognizes that parents have a great deal to offer as well as a need to receive services from special educators. attempts to give parents an equal part in deciding what services they need and what services they might provide to professionals or other parents.
  Mirror Model
   Gonzalez Mena’s “RERUN” theory
   Home-School Communication Techniques
  Parent-Teacher ConferencesWritten CommunicationTelephone Communication 
   Factors for increased parent involvement
  families know children better than anyone elsegreat interest in seeing child learnonly group of adults involved in child’s educational program throughout the school yearmust live with outcomes of decisions