Horace Mann
Educational philosopher who believed education was the great equalizer
fully implementing students with special needs into the general education curriculum
Diana V.

California Board of Edu

Determined unfair to test in non-native language, testing must be done in native language
Penn Assoc for Retarded Children (PARC) V. Commonwealth of Penn
You cannot exclude students with disabilities from an education
Mills V. Board of Edu District of Columbia
Cannot exclude students with disabilities because of funds
14th Amendment
no state can enforce a law that abridges privileges or immunities of citizens nor deprive them of life liberty or property without due process
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
Federal law saying no citizen can be excluded from any program or activity receiving public assistance due to a disability. extends protection from discrimination.

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informed consent2. zero reject3. FAPE4. nondiscriminate evaluation5.

LRE6. IEP7. Procedural safeguards

Brown V. Topeka Kansas
cannot segregate students,including those with disabilities
Larry P. v. Riles
African over representation for mild retardation because english IQ tests; determined IQ testing cant be only basis for placement in special education
Board of Edu Henrick Hudson v. Rowley
helped define FAPEschools not required to make children reach potential, merely improve
Honig v.


students can’t be left out of SPED for behaviors related to disability
Procedural due process
checks and balances between parents and schools, includes parents rights, mediation and due process hearings
Parents rights
-notification of school decisions-consent to testing-involvement in decision making (IEP)-right to protest with due process hearings-right to examine records
Protection Evaluation Procedures (PEP)
for parents who feel wrongly evaluated, helps to avoid due process hearings and misclassifications, evaluates assessment procedures
(IFSP) Individualized Family Service Plan
like an IEP but for infants from birth until age 2-includes goals, interventions, and services
IEP/IFSP Timelines
No SPED without IEP/IFSPmust have IEP at beginning of school yearreviewed atleast yearlyIEP formation meeting within 45 days of referralIFSP reviewed every 6 months
(LRE) Least Restrictive Environment
meets needs of student and places them in GENED as much as possible
Related Services
speech,psych, therapy, transportation ect
(RTI) Response to Intervention
process using scientifically designed strategies to intervene and correct problems and falling behind
Identifying need for SPED services
1. screening2. pre-referral3. formal referral4. parent consent/due process procedures5. non-discriminate evaluation
(SST)Schoolwide Support System
team in the school that assists teachers with problems of students
(BIP) Behavioral Intervention Plan
interventions based on behavior
Child Find
process of finding children with disabilities and provide intervention services from 0-5
Samuel Orton
studied language disorders, created Orton Dyslexia Society/International Dyslexia Association
who defined learning disabilities
Samuel Kirk, Miriam Monroe, and Grace Fernald
1975 Public Law 94-142
Education for all Handicap Actrecognized learning disabilities as a disability, allocating funds
Causes of learning disabilities
reading learning disabilities
-most common-serious implications in life and education-decoding: recognizing words
math learning disabilities-attention deficits-spacial/visual (loses place)-auditory-memory-motor (writing
oral disabilities
-content: vocab, definitions, figurative lang, word retrieval-form:making sentences-use: speech
cannot remember how to make alpha or numeric symbols in writing
ability to monitor and evaluate own thinking, lack of causes inability to use strategies like mnemonics, storing and recalling info
emotional/behavioral disorders
-schizophrenia,psychosomatic,phobias, withdrawal, depression, anxiety, aggression, antisocial behavior-defined by IDEA: behaviors to a marked degree that effects educational performance-social maladjustment excluded
EBD (emotional behavioral disorder) causes
-biological disorder or disease-family relationships-bad school experiences-negative cultural experiences
meaning of complex language
cause of learning disabilities has been attributed to agents that cause malformations or defects in developing fetuses which are called
learning disabilities are a life-long condition
The predominant form of educating those with mild intellectual disabilities was _______.
pullout programs