a dual disability involving vision and hearing impairment
learning disability
a disability of unexpected underachievement typically involving reading that is resistant to treatment
traumatic brain injury
head injury causing reduced cognitive function, limited attention, and impulsivity
low vision
vision is still useful for learning or the execution of a task
not having a functional use of sight
legally blind
a category of blindness used to qualify for federal and state benefits
congenital blindness
blindness present at birth or occuring in early infancy
adventitious blindness
blindness acquired after the age of 2
conductive hearing loss
hearing impairments due to damage or obstruction to the outer or middle ear that obstructs transfer of sound to the inner ear
sensorineural hearing loss
hearing impairment dur to damage to the inner ear or the auditory nerve
residual hearing
the amount of functional hearing a person has
prelingually deaf
having lost the ability to hear before developing language
postlingually deaf
having lost the ability to hear after developing language
noise inducted hearing loss
a major cause of sensorineural hearing loss due to the damage to the hair cells from the sustained noise in the environment
intellectual disability
impaired mental functioning, limited adaptive behaviors, need for supports, and initial occurance before age 18
emotional disturbances
the term used in IDEA for emotional or behavioral disorders
developmental delay
A chronological delay in the appearance of normal developmental milestones achieved during infancy and early childhood, caused by organic, psychological, or environmental factors.

orthopedic impairments
the term used in IDEA 04 for physical disabilities resulting in special hearlth care needs
multiple disabilities
having one or more disability at once
speech or language impairment
abnormal speech that in unintelligible, is unpleasant, or interferes with communication
one of the autistic spectrum disorders, ranges from low to high functioning
profound hearing loss
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: ensures a free and appropriate education and services without cost to the family
Individualized Education Program: Management tool to identify and organize needed services
Individualized Family Service Plan: Identifies and organized services and resources for infants and toddlers (B-3yrs) and their families
Least Restrictive Environment: Educational placement with the most inclusion and integration with typical learners as possible and appropriate
Free Appropriate Public Education: Ensures that students with disabilities receive necessary education and services without cost to the family
Learning Disability: A disability of unexpected underachievement typically involving reading that is resistant to treatment
Mental Retardation/ Intellectual Disability: Impaired intellectual functioning, limited adapted behavior, need for supports and initial occurrence before age 18
increases access to the curriculum and instruction for all students
Emotional Behavioral Disability/ Emotional Disturbance: A disability characterized by behavioral or emotional responses very different from all norms and referent groups with adverse affects on education performances
Traumatic brain injury- head injury causing reduced cognitive function, limited attention, an impulsivity
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A condition of hyperactivity, impulsivity, inattention; included in other health impairments
Autism Spectrum Disorders-a group of disorders with similar characteristics including difficulties with communication, social interaction, and manneristic behaviors
Culturally and Linguistically Diverse: Being from a cultural group that is not of mainstream America and having home or native language that is not English
English Language Learners: Students learning English as their second language
Council of Exceptional Children: the voice and vision of special education
Americans with Disabilities Act: Antidiscrimination legislation guaranteeing basic civil rights to people with disabilities
No Child Left Behind Act: Reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act mandating higher standards for both students and teachers, including an accountability system
Adequate Yearly Progress is the minimum level of performance that school districts and schools must achieve each year as determined under the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act.
Maryland School Assessment: a test of reading and math achievement that meets the testing requirements of the federal No Child Left Behind Act.
High School Assessment: tests that measure school and individual student progress toward Maryland’s High School Core Learning Goals in English, Government, Algebra/Data Analysis, and Biology.

Passing the HSA is a graduation requirement beginning with the graduating class of 2009

Voluntary State Curriculum/State Curriulum-defines what students should know and be able to do at each grade level (Pre-K – 8) in four content areas: reading/English language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies.
Positive behavioral interventions and supports-a three tiered model of support offering progressively more intensive levels of intervention
Functional Behavior Assessments: A process in which interviews, observations, and environmental manipulations are conducted to determine why certain behaviors occur; behavioral evaluations to determine the exact nature of problem behaviors
Behavior Intervention Plan: Includes a functional assessment and procedures to prevent and intervene for behavioral infractions
Augmentative and alternative communication devices: Other methods for communicating, such as communication boards, communication books, sign language, and computerized voices; assistive technology that helps individuals communicate, including devices that actually produce speech
Response to Intervention: A multitiered prereferral method of increasingly intensive interventions; used to identify “nonresponders” or students with learning disabilities