English writer Neil Caiman wanted to write a romance that felt like a fantasy and though Stardust isn’t explicitly categorized as a fairy tale, it is often described by many of its readers as a fairy tale for adults. This is not completely unexpected as Stardust fulfills Phyllis C. Rally’s definition of a fairy tale – a written narrative In prose form about the fate of a protagonist who, having experienced various magical adventures, ends up living happily ever after.

Furthermore, Stardust follows J. A. Escudo’s provision that such tales should include charms, disguises, and spells mongo other magical elements.

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From the very beginning, Stardust establishes itself as a fairy tale with the use of John Donna’s “Song” in its opening. The poem lists several supernatural scenarios like hearing mermaids singing and quite appropriately, catching a falling star among a handful of other such wonders. This allows for a smooth transition to the start of the story. The poem, along with the first sentence, “There was once a young man who wished to gain his Heart’s Desire” immediately draws the reader away from his or her realist expectations and prepares him or her for the fairy tale genre.Soon thereafter, a distinct and careful description of the time period of the story is provided by Caiman: The events that follow transpired many years ago.

Queen Victoria was on the throne, but she was far from being the black-clad widow of Windsor. She had apples in her cheeks and the spring In her step, and Lord Melbourne often had cause to upbraid, gently the young queen for her flightiness. She was, as yet, unmarried, although she was very much in love.

Mr.. Charles Dickens was serializing his novel Oliver Twist; Mr.

. Draper had Just taken a photograph of the moon, freezing her pale face for the first time on cold paper; Mr..Morse had Just announced a way of transmuting messages down metal wires. The early Victorian era is the setting defined by the four figures cited in the text but more than Just determining the period of the text, Caiman used them to characterize the period for the text. He uses each figure’s particular connections and contributions to describe the mood of the narrative.

For example, he emphasizes the “youthful energy and optimism of Queen Victoria” while negating the more popular image of her as a repressive and mournful widow.Thus, Queen Victorians disposition as highlighted by Galvan, gives us the atmosphere of the place and time of the story Charles Dickens, a writer and commentator on the literary fairy tale, Is made to represent the arts and popular culture while Draper and Morse are representations of science and technology. All four figures could also signify “Victorian human magic” as they all characterize renown and wonder because their achievements could not be meaningfully comprehended Day ten people AT Tanat tale. It Is Day tense means Tanat Galvan aligns Stardust with a particular Victorian cultural tradition that is compatible with fairy tales.

There are many miserable, monotonous or disreputable figures that this reticular age could have provided but he does not mention these and instead concentrates on the pioneers of the then unexplored realms of culture and science. It has been written that “Just as Tristan is a figure of exploration and wonder, Caiman chooses the time period itself to embody similar attributes. ” Tristan Throne is the protagonist of Stardust. It is his adventure that is chronicled by the narrative and follows the main plot pattern of the hero’s Journey.

The first stage is the Departure where the protagonist is said to be separated from the known and steps into the unknown. There are several sub-stages to be tackled under the Departure. Initially, the Home Culture is established. Here, the place that the protagonist thinks is normal, familiar, and common to others in his or her culture is ascertained.

For Tristan, this is the small English town called Wall, located a night’s drive away from London. It is named after an old rock wall that separates the town from the magical world of Faerie.This gateway is always guarded, day and night, by two townsfolk, except once every nine years on May Day when a market comes to the meadow Just past the wall. This is the one and only day of the year when anyone is allowed through the gap in the wall and the village becomes host to an array of weird and wonderful travelers on their way to the fair. The next sub-stage is the Call to Adventure, a normal occurrence that motivates the main character to explore an unknown aspect of his or her world. In the case of Tristan, the call happened one night when he was walking Victoria Forester home.

She sees a shooting star land in Faerie and he ends up vowing to bring it back to her in exchange for a kiss and perhaps her hand in marriage. Thinking that Tristan would never actually do it, Victoria promises to do whatever he asks if he brings her he star. This is then followed by the Supernatural Aid where the inexperienced protagonist is provided a magical guide or instrumental item to assist him or her in the realm of the unknown. In his youth, Duncan Throne, Trainman’s father, was given a snowdrop by Nun, a princess of Faerie enslaved by a witch who calls herself Madame Smell and incidentally, is also Trainman’s birth mother.Duncan gives the magical flower to Tristan and helps his son pass the wall.

In Crossing the First Threshold, the protagonist moves out of his or her comfort zone and walks alone. This occurs when Tristan enters Faerie and he is on his own until he meets a little hairy man who provides him with more supernatural aid. He gives Tristan a silver chain that has the ability to bind magical creatures and a candle stub that allows its bearer to travel great distances with great speed as it burns.

The crossing of the first threshold changes the protagonist’s world forever, thus making way for the second stage called the Initiation.It takes place as the protagonists mental Ana Pensacola Journey result In a spiritual revelation AT purpose and self. Again, this stage has several sub-stages, the first one being the Road of Trials. The protagonist is tested and found vulnerable but the outcome reveals a previously unknown part of his or her self.

The assistance given to the protagonist under the Supernatural Aid section of Departure begins to come into play in the story, and he or she is not expected to face the trials alone. After Tristan receives the candle stub from the little hairy man, he uses it to quickly reach the fallen star.Upon reaching it, he is surprised to find that the star is actually a young woman named Heaven, whose leg was broken when she fell from the sky. He decided to bring her back to Victoria anyway, tying her to him with the silver chain. However, before he could return to Wall with her, the candle goes out and the two sleep for the night. The next morning, Tristan tells Heaven about his promise to Victoria and his intention to bring her to Victoria. Not long after, Heaven escapes when Tristan leaves her for awhile in order to search for food.

Tristan is miserable when he finds Heaven gone but a tree, who says that Pan, the spirit of the forest, told her to help him talks to him and encourages him. The tree tells Tristan that there are people who are after Heaven and they want to harm her so he must protect her. She then tells him about a path in the forest with a carriage coming down it that Tristan can’t miss and she gives Tristan a leaf that would provide supernatural aid.

Tristan runs to catch the carriage and nearly misses it but for a tree that has fallen in the carriage’s path.Tristan meets Primps, the driver of the carriage and persuades Primps to allow him to ride in the carriage. The following sub-stage of The Ultimate Goal is now fulfilled. Here we see the protagonist becomes self-assured and he or she often receives physical gifts or emotional rewards. Since personal limitations are broken, the protagonist can see the gig picture not only in relation to him or herself but also in relation to others. The protagonist understands how the ultimate goal can be accomplished and the mission completed. Meanwhile, an evil witch queen creates an inn to trap Heaven who is coming her way.

Heaven falls into the trap and Just as the witch queen is preparing to carve out her heart, Tristan and Primps, who have also been attracted by the inn, arrive. It is here that Primps meets his death. However, Tristan is able to rescue Heaven by forming a makeshift candle from the remnants of the magical candle he had obtained earlier, running his left hand in the process.

Tristan and Heaven are transported away from the in and eventually end up stranded on a cloud, miles above Faerie. Fortunately, they are rescued by a crew of lightning catchers aboard an airborne ship called Predict.Captain Liberal agrees to help them on their way back to Wall. Whilst on the ship, Tristan expresses regret for chaining Heaven up.

The star reveals that while Tristan no longer intends to force her to accompany her to Wall, the custom of her people dictates that, because he saved her life, she is nonetheless obliged to Tallow nil. Upon parting company Walt ten snap an encounter Madame Smell. A Its crew, Ralston Ana Heavenly Due to the curse the witch queen put on her, Madam Smell is unable to see Heaven, but agrees to transport Tristan the rest of the way to Wall because she is going there to attend the Faerie market anyway.Tristan obtains a promise from Madam Smell that he will not be harmed, will receive board and lodging, and will arrive at Wall in the same manner and condition as he was on departure. However this promise does not prevent Madam Smell from transforming him into a dormouse for the duration of the Journey with the use of the snowdrop he traded for the arrangement. The star also rides on Madam Smile’s wagon, unbeknownst to the old woman. Tristan, now returned to his human form, Heaven, Madam Smell and the witch queen all arrive at the Wall market.

Tristan leaves Heaven and crosses back into Wall to tell Victoria that he has returned with the star. Heaven realizes that she has fallen in love with Tristan and, if he fulfills his promise to bring her to Victoria, she will not only lose him to another woman, but upon leaving Faerie, will be transformed into an ordinary piece of rock. Now we enter the last and final stage of the Hero’s Journey ailed the Return, where the protagonist’s ultimate sacrifice of self allows him or her to walk in an enlightened state.

One of its sub-stages is Crossing the Return Threshold.The protagonist realizes that his “home” is not a place but a state of being and that those in his or her past may no longer accept him. This occurs as a dismayed Victoria reveals that she is already engaged to Monday, Trainman’s old employer, and that she never believed that Tristan would fulfill his promise. Victoria regretfully tells Tristan that she will keep her promise and marry him. However Tristan, points out that her promise wasn’t to array him. It was to give him anything he desired. He goes on to say that he desires for her to marry her love, Monday.Tristan returns to Heaven at the fair who is delighted to learn that Victoria is to be married to Monday, not Tristan.

He then reveals that he reciprocates Heaviness love for him. Nun informs Madam Smell that she will soon be free, as her enslavement is due to end when the moon loses her child (Heaven) in a week when two Mondays come together (the marriage of Victoria and Monday). The silver chain that binds Nun finally fades away, and she demands payment for her services, which Madam Smell just give on pain of losing her powers.Nun seeks out Tristan and Heaven and reveals that she is Lady Nun, the only daughter of the Eighty-First Lord of Stockholm, and that Tristan is her son, making him the last male heir of Stockholm. In Master of Two Worlds, the protagonist has the ability, power, or wisdom without limitations to relax in whatever world (physical, mental, emotional, or spiritual) he or she finds him or herself in. The protagonist can adjust to his or her past and future self. This is found in the part of the plot where Nun instructs Tristan to ask Heaven for the topaz she carries.Upon receiving the topaz, the power of Stockholm passes to I Ralston.

However, nee classes to Immediately return to steamroll, leaving to reign in his stead while he and Heaven travel around Faerie. Lay nun Finally, there is Freedom, the last sub-stage of the Return where the protagonist is able to combine the workings of the old and new societies into one world. This is the world where the protagonist now resides and he or she understands that his or her old self had to “die” in order for the new way of life to begin.

He or she no longer fears change and has learned to live in the moment regardless of what that means.This occurs as many years later, Tristan and Heaven finally return to Stockholm, and Tristan assumes his duties as the Lord of Stockholm. The main plot pattern has now been completed. However, there are several existing subplots in Stardust that are worth noting. One of which is the Stuck Story Pattern it employs. A stuck story occurs when a character or subject is accidentally caught or is deliberately taken, stolen or kidnapped. This pattern is found in Lady Ana’s storyline. She is enslaved by Madame Smell with the use of the magical silver chain but is freed when certain conditions are met.

Another subplot exists among the Lords of Stockholm. The character Primps who was mentioned earlier is actually one of the seven sons of the eighty first Lord of Stockholm. On his deathbed, the lord’s three remaining living sons, Primps, Terries and Septum, were gathered to determine who would be the heir to the throne. The dying lord hurls the Power of Stockholm in the form of a topaz stone into the sky and declares that whoever retrieves it will be the next Lord of Stockholm. Septum sees the Power of Stockholm knock a star from the heavens and he departs after the stone on his own after poisoning Terries.

Now only he and Primps are left to compete for the topaz. When Septum finds Primps’ corpse, he sets off in search of the witch queen in order to fulfill an obligation to avenge his slain brother and obtain the topaz, in order to claim his birthright as the last surviving son of Stockholm. However, before he accomplishes this, he is killed by the witch queen as well.

This storyline follows the Contest Story Plot Pattern where two characters challenge each other to a contest of sorts. In this particular subplot, Primps and Septum are in a competition to win lordship over Stockholm.A variation of this plot pattern is one hat involves a predator and prey dynamic like the one which exists between the witch queen and Heaven. The witch queen is actually the eldest of three witches that make up the Limit. They live in a small, grey house in the woods and learn of the fallen star by reading the entrails of a dead stoat.

They seek the fallen star because by consuming her heart, they will be granted centuries of youth and beauty. As part of the pattern, Heaven narrowly escapes the queen witch at the inn with the help of Tristan.Finally, a pattern of character transformation also exists as a subplot to the hero’s journey. Trainman’s perspective is greatly altered from believing that in order to gain a woman’s love, he must give her a material object in exchange to recognizing what real love was. Heavenly also change near blew AT Ralston.

IT at TLS seen saw nil as near captor who also happened to be a “creations, vermilion oaf” among many other foul things, by the end, she saw him as her savior and true love. Also present in Stardust is mythical improvisation as depicted by the use of the Limit.In Jewish myths they were demons who hunted men, seduced them and drained their life with a kiss. They also kidnapped children and ate them. In Stardust forever, the Limit were portrayed as the once beautiful queens of a long-lost magical kingdom of witches but when it was lost beneath the sea, centuries of age caught up with them.

This is why they needed to catch the fallen star whose heart they would eat in order to regain what they had lost. It is remarkable to note the new interpretation of the satyr which can be drawn from the narrative as well.In Greek mythology, satyrs were half-man, half-beast creatures that lived in forests and hills. Usually they are pictured as human above the waist and goat below the waist. Satyrs had horns on their heads and according to some resources, were the children of goats and mountain nymphs.

In the story, the witch queen encounters a farm boy named Bribes at a crossroads in the woods. He had been given an errand by his mother to sell their goat. The witch queen takes the goat and then, she transforms Bribes into a second goat to make a pair that would pull her small chariot.Later on in the story, as the witch queen tries to lure Heaven by setting up an inn, she hides under the guise of an innkeeper’s wife. She turns Bribes into a girl so that he could play the part of her daughter while she turns the goat into a man to play her Cubans. It is interesting how Caiman creates a play between the human form and the form of the goat. Bribes could have been easily enchanted to act as the witch queen’s husband because he was already male in the first place but she used the goat instead. It is somewhere along this part of the narrative that a magical object makes a reappearance as well.

Various magical elements are employed in Stardust. One of the magical objects used is The Potion, a consumable liquid with magical properties usually made by a magician, sorcerer, dragon, fairy or witch. It might be used to heal, bewitch or poison people.

The witch queen tries to kill Tristan and Primps by poisoning the wine she offers them. Previously, this magical object was used by Septum to kill his brother Terries in order to narrow down the competition for the crown, leaving him and Primps to fight for the topaz and claim the throne. Precious stones have been used in a lot of literature as objects that hold many magical properties.

The topaz is another magical article in this story as it carries with it the power of Stockholm. Also bearing strong magical powers is the glass flower called snowdrop, which is actually a frozen charm. Madame Smell used it to ransom Tristan into a dormouse for the Journey to the Faerie Market at the wall. Aside from objects, magical numbers play a part in the Stardust. Three of the common ones can De lament nee In ten story. The first is mentioned in the statement that only once every nine (9) years do mortal and magical folk get to mingle in an enchanted meadow to exchange goods and services.The number seven (7) is cited as the number of sons the eighty-first Lord of Stockholm has.

Caiman follows the ancient Roman method in naming these characters: Primps, Census, Terries, Quarts, Quintus, Sextets, and Septum. He applies a form of theme naming where characters are given names that contain numbers, or which are numbers. Needless to say, this makes it a whole lot easier to keep track of who’s who. The number that makes the most number of appearances in Stardust would be the number three (3). This is the number of living sons the lord had before Septum killed Terries.This is also the number of witches that made up the Limit and when Tristan encounters the talking tree, she tells him three true things. The first two she said she would reveal at that moment but the last true thing, he would find out when the time was right. The first true thing was that Heaven was in great danger.

The second was that there was a path through the forest where a carriage would soon pass. The third truth was given to Tristan in the form of a copper colored leaf, to be kept safe and listened to when help was needed most. The talking tree in the story actually used to be a wood nymph. Nymphs were young goddesses of nature.They were the daughters of Zeus, the king of the gods and they ranged over beautiful groves and dwelled near springs, in mountains through which rivers flowed and in woods. In Greek mythology, there were Sea Nymphs, Land Nymphs and Wood Nymphs. The Dryads were the nymphs of the forest, or wood nymphs. They were the hunting companions of Artemisia and enjoyed playing with Hermes, the messenger of the gods and Hermes’ son, the Satyr Pan.

Pan is mentioned in the narrative as the spirit of the forest. The Unicorn also makes an appearance in the narrative. While in the forest, Heaven and Tristan arrive at a clearing.There, they witness a fight between a lion and a unicorn over a golden crown. Heaven asks Tristan to help the Unicorn when the Lion was about to kill it. Tristan, remembering the old nursery rhyme, The Lion and the Unicorn, picks the crown and hands it to the Lion.

With the crown upon its head, the Lion slips away into the forest. Tristan and Heaven spend the night beside the wounded Unicorn. Saved from death, the unicorn follows them, in part out of gratitude and in part because it’s worried about the star. At Trainman’s request, the unicorn carries Heaven, who has a broken leg.Then before he goes off to look for food, he removes the magic chain tying her to him and she escapes with the unicorn. Unfortunately, the unicorn takes her to the fake inn created by the witch queen. Once at the inn, the unicorn is locked in the stable.

Heaven is taken inside and pampered. She is completely unaware of how close she is to death. Later, Tristan and Primps arrive. The prince goes inside while Tristan stables ten Norse. I nee unlearn Is ruling tenure when ten abalones wine Is sent out to Tristan and stops him from drinking it. Tristan realizes that they are in danger and charges into the inn with the unicorn to warn Primps.A battle ensues. Primps and the unicorn die but Tristan and Heaven get away.

Now, taking the plot, style and magical components of Stardust into consideration, realism’s can be drawn from this fantasy romance to a fairy tale by George MacDonald. “The Day Boy and the Night Girl” tells the story of a witch named Watch who raises two children, a boy named Photogenic and a girl named Inciters. Photogenic is made to know only day and is never exposed to darkness while Inciters only experiences night and is hidden away from the sun. Their worlds are limited by this distinction until they begin to mature and discover their different worlds.

They encounter one another without the witch’s knowledge and after a period of fear and adjustment, decide to escape. With each other’s help, both Photogenic and Inciters learn to function in either night or day. When they accidentally kill the witch in her wolf form, they return to her castle and more Justly rule her domain together. This tale shows a male and female pair of characters forced to act outside of their native settings much like in Stardust. It is the male character that is associated with day, the sun, health, and activity while the female character is affiliated with night, the moon, frailty, and melancholy.However, over the course of each story the pair confronts these differences, at first tit mistrust but later with greater mutual appreciation. In “The Day Boy and the Night Girl,” Photogenic has been raised as a hunter and outdoors.

He has been expressly trained to be fearless but his first experience with night terrifies him. Inciters finds him and comforts him. However, in the morning, when their situations are reversed, he scorns her fear of day because he imagines it to be a parody of his own fear of the night.Similarly, in Stardust, Tristan does not understand that a star can also be a sentient creature. He chains her to himself so that he can bring her to Victoria Forrester, the object of his romantic rust and the reason for his trip into Faerie. Tristan does not truly understand the Heaviness being, Just as Photogenic does not understand Inciters’.

The male characters in both stories “have to be taught how to understand that other beings are separate from the masculine assumed privilege and are complete unto their selves”. At the same time, the female characters need development as well.The star does not want to accept the foreign world in which she travels: “She looked around the grove, ‘How very bland this world looks, by day. And how dull.

” She too, eke Inciters, has progress to make over the course of the story. Inciters has to learn that her self-education has been incomplete, and that the world around her is larger and more varied than she had imagined. This first inspires massive fear and panic, but through her progress with Photogenic, by the end of the story she prefers the day, though she can function at any time.

This parallels Airlift’s slowly Adult relations to I-aerie, as well as ten relations between him and Heaven. Similarly, both pairs must resolve their conflicts with their stories’ respective witches before they can begin their lives together. McDonald’s and Gasman’s fairy tales create a very similar pattern for the protagonist pair in terms of both external and internal trials.

“The Day Boy and the Night Girl” presents a lot of recognizable aspects of a fairy tale like having a witch, a beautiful imprisoned maiden, a handsome and brave hero, a rescue, an inevitable marriage and the happily-ever-after.It begins with the lines: There was once a witch who desired to know everything. But the wiser a witch is, the harder she knocks her head against the wall when she comes to it.

Her name was Watch, and she had a wolf in her mind. She cared for nothing in itself only for knowing it. She was not naturally cruel, but the wolf had made her cruel. The opening itself heralds our entrance into the familiar realm of make-believe, and the foreshadowing of the witch’s future punishment reassures us that cruelty will not prevail. However, like many of George McDonald’s writings, the story focuses on gender and reflects active feminism.It illustrates the interdependence of sexes and repeatedly draws attention to the capabilities of the female character.

While MacDonald takes a fairly essentialist view of gender, what makes him unique is his valuing of rotationally female associations and qualities. His fairy tales consistently depict women as superior. In describing Inciters in relation to Photogenic, MacDonald writes, “But she was the greater, for suffering more, she feared nothing. ” He undermines the traditional perception of the characteristics of each sex by revealing the courage of the girl and the cowardice of the boy.Here lies the difference between McDonald’s and Gasman’s tales.

In Stardust, gender and age politics come into play. Whenever the witch queen uses her magic, she ages and by the end of the story she is even more withered and ugly than in the ginning. In the film version, her witch sisters constantly warn her not to forfeit her beauty to the unnecessary use of magic which gives the underlying message that “anything, however morally repulsive, is better than aging.

” The only other old woman in the story, Madame Smell is also a witch and stereotyped as ugly and evil.Trainman’s mother on the other hand does not even age a day between his birth and the end of the story where she reveals her true identity to him because she’s a good character. Even the treatment of younger women has been said to be problematic. The two young female characters are Victoria who is pretty, blonde, selfish, and shallow and secondly, Heaven the star who is pretty, blonde, helpless, and not too smart.

Trainman’s mother may be handsome, dark-haired, and clever, but she’s controlled by other forces for most of the story.There really isn’t a strong female character in the story that goes beyond gender stereotypes. I Nils Is true IT not more so In ten Tall. However, want can De greatly appreciate Is how the literature inspired notable changes in the movie. One very clear and not to mention amusing example is the creation of a new character. In the narrative, when Heaven and Tristan ended up stranded in the sky, they were rescued by Captain Liberal and his crew aboard the ship called Predict, a character in William Shakespearean The Winter’s Tale.In the movie, there was no Captain Liberal. There was however, a Captain Shakespeare who happened to be a closeted gay.

Most of what happened in the film aboard the ship did not happen in the book. In fact, this part of the story did not take up a long section, Just a few pages, but the film version took that bit and greatly expanded it. Aside from this, the two main characters were presented differently as well. Tristan in the film doesn’t seem to recognize that when he leaves the human world for Faerie, he’s giving something up.

He’s leaving his family. He’s leaving a community he was part of where people loved and respected him. In the book, Tristan was more aware of this, which makes his choice to cross the wall more profound. In the same way, the film portrayed Heaven complaining about being knocked from the sky and used as a trophy but there was no sense of the deep longing for the community she was torn from. In the book, she knows that she can never go back to where she came from and e with her sisters, thus providing insight to her melancholic nature.

They also tweaked Heaviness character by giving her a habit of twinkling when she’s happy but the biggest liberty the film version took was with the ending. There is no final encounter between Heaven and the witch queen where Heaven feels nothing but pity for her. There was also none of the traveling around Tristan and Heaven did before settling in Stockholm. Basically, it was not a quiet, lonely ending. In its place was a whole lot of action where the witch queen captures Heaven and Lady Nun at the all during the fair and takes them to her sisters.Their plan is to enslave Nun and kill Heaven. Both Septum and Tristan show up. A big fight scene ensues with magic, swords and animals.

Septum dies along with the two witch sisters, leaving the witch queen the last villain standing. She feigns defeat before her last attack but Heaven taps into her star essence and shines so brightly, the witch queen is incinerated. Then we have the coronation, after which we are told that the pair lived a long and happy time, saw their children and grandchildren grow into adults, and then one day used a magic Andre to go up into the sky and become stars.While the film demonstrates how literature affects film, the relationship between the two goes both ways. Thus, it is noteworthy to discuss the visual influence that was reflected in Stardust.

Neil Gasman’s work has a history of exploring the possible relationships between image and text through his involvement with a variety of media and genres. He works with film, comics and picture books, as well as the traditional novel and short story genres. The majority of these categories require cooperation between a visual and textual component, giving him much experience