Submittedby: KENETTE A. SUMAYOABSociology / 3rd YearSOCIO130 (Special Topics in Sociology)Wednesday(1:00-4:00)Submittedon: December 26, 2017 Submittedto: Prof. Mario Aguja Title: Access to Government HealthServices by the Residents of Norala Concept NoteHealth is a state of being physical, mentaland socialwell-being. Also, it is being free from any illnesses and diseases.

It is oneof the important aspects a human should have because it enables a person toperform well the roles in the society and to finish the tasks in a short periodof time. It is a vital characteristics that should be possessed by a person todo the tasks well in order to survive the everyday life.In a society today, many people suffer from differentkinds of health problems.

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Based on the Social Weather Station, 8 out of 10 inthe population don’t visit the health professionals to check their healthcondition. Health diseases don’t choose a person instead it comes unexpectedly.It give difficulties to the affected people because it prevents them to performtheir tasks. It is important for an individual to be aware of the healthcondition so that it will enable for a person to prevent or avoid it.

It isalso essential that an individual should visit and see health professionals toknow the health status. Government is one of the institutions that areresponsible for taking care of the people especially in terms of their health.Government officials have the task to provide health services for the good ofthe people.They have projects and programs that are implemented to take goodcare of the health of the people because, if the people are healthy they becomeproductive which can contribute to the growth and development of thecountry.Accessing the health services from the government is important for anindividual to monitor the health condition and to cure whenever there is adisease. Everybody should easily access to the services given by the governmentfor their own good but, there are some factors which are hindrances for thepeople to access it. The researcher was interested to study this topic, toknow the patterns of people in accessing the health services from thegovernment and the challenges they experienced. The following are the relatedstudies that will support the topic and will help to form the conceptual paradigmto better understand this study:According to Hyun (2009), there should be an equity interms of giving the health services for the people of the Philippines in orderto ensure that every person have access to it.

Everyoneshould have the opportunity to access every time they need it for them tomonitor and secure their health. Based on the study, there is inequity inaccessing the health services in where individuals cannot have the sameopportunity in availing any services. Health services are provided by privateand public sectors in where, richer individuals are able to visit easily theprivate health professionals for their health to be checked and they can affordbetter quality medicines and services from the private sector. On the otherhand, poor individuals depend on the public sectors which are provided by thegovernment but, public health services in developing countries impose fees toany services in which poor individuals can’t still afford to pay. Publicservices are provided for the benefits of everyone in a society, however, theservices are often failed to reach the poor people because of some factors.

This study showed that poor people have difficulties in accessing governmenthealth services because of their financial resources problem.The Philippine Health Financing system is complicatedbecause it involves different branches such as health service providers,regulatory bodies and financial sources. Health service providers are the onewho gives the need of the people in terms of health but there are problems inproviding for them. One basis of availability of health services is the numberof beds per hospital. Most regions in the country have insufficient beds in thehospital for the patient except NCR, CAR, Sothern Mindanao and NorthernMindanao. In addition, the country is abundant in health human resources thatare responsible to take good care of the people but they are unevenlydistributed in where, they are concentrated in Manila and other cities in thePhilippines. The regulatory bodies are the one who control and manage thehealth system in the country but there is a problem in the regulation. Theyunevenly distributes the health services in where most of the privilege andutilities are in urban.

Financial sources of the country for health servicescomes from different sources, the national or local government, donation, outof pocket and insurance. Utilization of health services can be determine by thesocioeconomic status of an individual. Most of the people live in urban areasand have enough financial resources are confined in private hospitals.

Furthermore, those who have PhilHealth insurance has the chance to be confinein private hospitals than those without PhilHealth insurance. Based on thesurvey, most of the Filipinos who have low income preferred to be confine ingovernment hospitals if their family member needs it, for them to afford thefees. Sometimes there are cases that poor people needs out of pocket for theirfees in confinement in where, it difficult for them because of the financialproblem.

Affordability and excellent services are the main reason for beingsatisfied, however, poor services from the government services are the reasonfor being dissatisfied. (Lavado et al., 2010)Based on National Demographic and Health Status (2008),Philippines face different kinds of challenges in attaining health care for thepeople. One of the challenges is the infant and child mortality rate. Accordingto the study of UNICEF, a newborn child in the country has the higherpossibility to die during the first month of life compared to the newbornchildren in developed countries. This case vary on the place of residence,socioeconomic and educational attainment of the mother. Place of residence ofthe people can be in rural or urban areas. The study shows that people inruralareas have this worse case or they have higher rate compared to those who arein urban areas.

Socioeconomic is one factor of this case, in every 1000 livebirths, 59 children came from the poorest families die before their fifthbirthday compared to 17 children from rich families. The educational attainmentof the mother is related to children mortality rate because children born withmother who have lesser or no education has a small chance of reaching theirfifth birthday compared to children with mother who reach higher education. Oneimportant part of health care system is improving the maternal health servicesbut only few mothers visit doctors, mostly consults to midwife and somepreferred to traditional way or “hilot”. These challenges can be solved whenthere is enough public facilities, health professionals and better servicesthat will serve and satisfy the people.According to Leonard and Ziller (2017), access to healthservices for the residents of Maine is important for them to check and monitortheir health condition. And for them to attain a physical and mentalwell-being. Mental health status is one of the important characteristics forthe people that should be take care of.

Access to health care by the people inMaine are affected by different factors such as age, financial resources andeducational attainment. Based on their study, many of the adults or in old ageare affected by the mental illnesses just like depression. In addition,financial resources is one of the factors that affect the people because manyof the poor are unable to visit the doctors and to check their health conditionalso, many of them don’t have a personal doctor or health care provider thatwill take good care of them. Furthermore, educational attainment is also afactor in accessing the health services by the people. A person who reach acollege level showed a lower rate of depression on the other hand, persons whohave low educational attainment showed a higher rate of depression. Thefindings of their study showed that the low socioeconomic status, education andincome really affect the mental health status of an individual.According to Cetrángolo et al., (2013), there arebarriers that hinders the Filipino citizens in accessing the health servicesfrom the government.

First, lack of financial resources in where people cannotafford to pay out of pocket fees whenever it is needed. Second, lack ofinformation on benefits that are provided by the Government. It is the reasonwhy many of them can’t avail and access to any services because they were notinformed of what are the services that are prepared for them. Third, lack ofresource to visit health facilities in where they need to pay costs fortransportation because of distance.

Lastly, perception of poor quality ofhealthcare services that hinders them to visit and avail any of the services.As a result, the factors that gives challenges to peoplein accessing government health services based on the related studies aredistance or place of residence, economic status, educational attainment andgovernment resources.First, distance. Most of the poor people lived in the rural areas wherethey are located in remote areas in which they have difficulties to accesstheir basic needs especially on health. For example, one of a poor familymember got disease or illness, they prefer to stay that person at home than tobring him/her to the hospital because they thought the time they spend intravelling and difficulties in there road while they are in their way. Inaddition, expensive transportation.

For example, the government have a freecheck-up programs in the centre of their municipality only just like”poblacion”, most of them didn’t go and avail it because they thought of theirexpenses in transportation.              Second, economic status of the family.Expensive medicines and medical therapies. When they are sick, some of themprefer to stay at home, take a rest and take of what only medicine they have orthey take alternative medicine just like herbals even though it’s not precisefor their diseases rather than to go in the health center and have a check-upto take a precise medicine that is being recommend by the medical doctor. Evenif, the government subsidized the medicines for the poor people, some of it arestill expensive especially when that kind of medicine is in demand and if it isfor the rare diseases. In addition, when it comes to a rare diseases just likecancer that needs therapies are cost highly because it needs a maintenance.Furthermore, there are doctors who do business in which they invent or make notonly medicines but also for the people to buy it even though it’s not anecessary needs just like diaper for babies. In addition, expensive admittance.

Some of them prefer to be cured by the faith healers or “albularyos” ratherthan to be admitted at the hospital even though they have major diseases suchas dengue and cancer. Although they are not sure that they will be cure by thefaith healers, still they visit “albularyos”, because for them that is thecheaper and essential healer for them to be cured. Third, education. Education is one of the important aspect a humanshould have in order to reach the economy’s standard and to have a betterposition in the society.

Education makes a person better. Education is one ofthe factor that the people are easy or difficult in accessing the governmenthealth services. If you have enough knowledge in availing the services or if youknow the process of availing, it would be easy to access. On the other hand, ifyou don’t have any knowledge and you don’t know how to process the requirementsof the government for their services, it would be difficult to access.Lastly, government resources. Government is an institution that providethe needs of the public. They are also the one who is assigned to care thepeople in the area in terms of security and health.

Some of the health care forthe people are not provided because the resources of the government healthservices are not available. Just like shortages of doctors and other healthprofessionals and also the resources for the medicine are not available. As far as this study concerned, the people should access to everygovernment health services for the care of their health. In order for them toperform their roles in the society and to participate in every activities ofthe community. This would help not only their self but also it will help thegovernment economy to improve and develop.     Government Resources Resources   Economic Status   Distance   Educational Attainment CONCEPTUAL PARADIGM     Access to Government Health Services   Access to Government Health Services ReferencesCetrángolo et al.

, 2013. Health Carein the Philippines: Challenges and Ways ForwardLavado et al., 2010. Chapter 1.

ThePhilippine Health System at a GlanceLeonard, Barbara and Ziller, Erika.2017. Mental Health Status and Access to Health     Care Services for Adults in MaineNational Demographic and HealthStatus. 2008. Challenges in Attaining Universal Health Care in the PhilippinesSon,Hyun H. 2009. Equity in Health and Health Care in the Philippines