Success in every battle is sometimes defined by one’sdiscipline. Fulfilment and satisfaction depends on how responsible a person isto carry out tasks. It’s how works are finished at a scheduled time. In School,for, example, students are trained to become responsible and competent enoughto carry out tasks and to meet deadlines. Students are always expected tofinish and pass the assigned work at the deadline set by the teacher.

But it’snot always about passing all the requirements. One’s presence and attendance inschool also matters. Students must attend classes unless announcements aredisseminated. But most of the time, student’s determination and responsibilityare tested. Regardless of how the school and home environment encourages theindividual to seek after bright future, temptations and negativities hinders.

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            “When a student chooses to be absentin school, especially at the college level, he/she suffers a loss of learningand instructional time leading to poor social and academic achievements. Thisis not to mention the financial loss if the student is enrolled in a privateschool. As he/she continuously misses learning opportunities in school, he/shemay eventually drop out of school moving on to lives of delinquency, crime,poverty, and unemployment. Hence, school absenteeism has far-reachingconsequences             In most countries, attendance toprimary and secondary schools is compulsory; thus, students who irregularlyattend their classes and demonstrate patterns of chronic absences violate thecompulsory attendance laws. These laws consider absences due to illness andfamily crises as excused absences.”(Clores, 2009).

            Absences are monitored by professorsthrough students’ performance records. Missed activities, quizzes, assignmentsand recitations means the student is absent. But conducting this study is notthat easy. We cannot just simply sort out the factors affecting the absenteeismof college students without properly and correctly identify those qualifiedsamples.            Absenteeism leads to many negativeeffects. These include drop outs, low performance that leads to low grades,incomplete remarks and unaccomplished requirements. But nevertheless, somestudents are still prone to absenteeism.

“It comes as no surprise that studentswith high absence rates earn lower grades than students with better attendance(Redick&Nicoll 1990).  Fleming andZafiraufound that over three-fourths of school failure rates were explained bythe attendance rate (Fleming &Zafirau 1982).”             “An unjustifiable or unexplainableabsence or nonattendance from school with attempt by the student to conceal theabsenteeism is referred to as truancy. Research doneon school absenteeism/ non-attendance/truancy at the primary and secondarylevels suggests that it is a phenomenon with no single cause-effect relationship(Cameron, 2004). Understanding the phenomenon means considering interrelatedand multidirectional forces interacting among them, namely, the student, theschool, and the community.In England,Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, and Russia,absenteeism is considered to be one of the standard problems of the schoolsystems.

Researches done on absenteeism in these European countries  reveal that absenteeism is associated withjuvenile delinquency, social and individual factors, school problems, poorlanguage ability, difficult family situation, alcoholism, financial need andillness. Demographic and ethnic factors are also mentioned in this connection.In general, the frequency of absences in major cities is higher than the frequencyof absenteeism in rural areas. Absenteeism among students is also attributed toan extremely cold and impersonal learning environment (Sokrates ProgrammeCOMENIUS 2.1., 2003). ”             “Absenteeism can be defined aspersistent, habitual, and unexplained absence from school (Brooks, 1997, ascited in Bond, 2004). Bond noted that chronic absenteeism occurs when a studentis absent without reason 20% or more of school time; ?this nominal figure isconsistently identified regardless of the specific circumstances of theabsenteeism? (p.

8).  Bond identifiedthree dimensions of absenteeism: truancy, condoned absenteeism, and schoolrefusal, whereas the Auditor General Victoria (Australia, 2004) identified fourmajor dimensions of absenteeism: truancy, school refusal, school withdrawal,and early leaving. It is important to identify the different dimensions ofabsenteeism in tackling the problem because they may require differentinterventions. Truancy: The Auditor General Victoria (Australia, 2004)describes truancy as: the persistent, habitual and unexplained absence fromschool of a child of compulsory school age, although it can occur with parentalknowledge and sometimes consent. However for the most part truant students tendto spend their time away from Loraine D. Cook & Austin Ezenne 34 school andhome; time away from home is used to conceal absences from their parents ….Truancy can take the form of fractional truancy, where students arrive late,leave early or skip individual classes (p.

16). According to Cunningham (2005),truancy is the absence of a student from school without the knowledge orpermission of parents. The truant leaves home under the pretense of going toschool but turns away and become involved in out-of-school activities. Truancyis unauthorized non-attendance. Bond (2004) included fractional truancy, whichoccurs when students arrive late or leave early, or spend entire days away fromschool. School refusal: School refusal differs from truancy in that childrenrefuse to attend school even in the face of persuasion and punitive measuresfrom parents and school. These students stay at home with the knowledgeof their parents and school administrators (McShane, Walter, & Rey, 2001).

This form of absenteeism is widely associated with social and medical disorderinvolving persistent non-attendance at school, excessive anxiety, and physicalcomplaints (Australia, 2004; Bond, 2004). This type of absenteeism can beseparated from the other types, given its psychological and/or medical composition.   Several studies show that school refusal isan important dimension in understanding students’ absenteeism(Dube, 2009; Kearney, 2007; McShane, Walter, & Rey, 2001).

Forexample, Dube and Orpinasnoted three reasons for students’ refusal to attendschool: 17.2% of their participants refused to go to school to avoid fear- oranxiety-producing situations, to escape from adverse social or evaluativesituations, or to gain positive tangible rewards; 60.6% missed school to gainparental attention or receive tangible rewards (positive reinforcement); and22.2% had no specific reason for not attending school. School withdrawal:Children are absent from school because their parents keep them away fromschool on a frequent basis because of the parents’ needs and priorities. Forthe most part, these children’s parents do not enrol them at school (Australia,2004). This, Cunningham (2005) referred to as ?parental agreed absence? (p.

29). Bond (2004) noted that this does necessarily equate to approved absence.According to Bond, ?absence can only be approved by the school given areasonable excuse? (p. 8).

  Earlyleaving: This refers to children under 15 who drop out of school beforecompleting their schooling.” (Loraine D. Cook and Austin Ezenne)             “A number of studies have attemptedto identify the various characteristics of chronicallyabsent and truant students (FDOE, 2004a, 2005b ). Some studies have shown that truant andchronically absent students can be identified by physical factors such as grade level,racial/ethnic group, socioeconomic status, and enrolment in the exceptional Educationprogram (FDOE, 2004a). Other studies have indicated that the type of disciplinaryaction used as a deterrent might have a negative effect on the level of chronicabsenteeism andtruancy (FDOE, 2005b). Depending on the research, each of thesefactors isconsidered a prime indicator of chronic absenteeism or truancy.

With the variousconflicting studies, it is difficult to determine which physical anddisciplinary factors havethe highest association with public school absenteeism.            Chronic absenteeism and truancy canbe symptoms of a greater problem (FDOE, 2004a; Hoffman,et al., 2003; Ruebel, Ruebel, & O’Laughlin, 2001).

This problem may be a result ofvarious factors associated with the students. However, before we can find outwhy the students are chronically absent, there is a need to identify thestudents who are most likely to become persistently absent. Once those studentsare identified, we can finally list down  the common factors that would define studentswho are most likely to become chronicallyabsent. Once the common factors have been identified, we can focus our effortson that population of students and their unique circumstances to better addressthose students’chronic absenteeism or truant behaviour.

” (Antworth, 2008) Many studieshave been conducted about factors affecting student’s absenteeism and eachstudy’s results vary. However, in here, let’s just focus on the three mainpoints:      Firstis the Physical and Health Factors. Often times, students who are frequentlyill are the one who are prone to absenteeism. Students would just stay at homebecause they cannot handle the pain when in school.

Toothache, stomachache, headache, diarrhea, Fever/flu is the most common reason of students for beingabsent. This is according to -The Problem of Student Absenteeism bylorenmorciaIn addition according toa study (Johnson 2016), “HealthAffects Attendance Children are chronically absent from school for a widevariety of issues directly related to their physical, mental, and socialhealth. Physical Health. Asthma is one of the most common causes of schoolabsences, together with significant health concerns such as poor dental health,vision impairment, diabetes, and obesity. Research suggests that U.S.schoolchildren with this treatable and remediable condition miss a combined 14million days of school each year.

The same research suggests that dental pain,often due to untreated decay, accounts for almost two million missed days ofschool annually. Mental Health. Fear, depression, social anxiety, and othermental health issues can make it difficult for children to feel comfortable goingto school. When children are exposed to significant stress, violence, or traumain their homes or communities, it can also trigger mental health issues thatcause them to be chronically absent from school. Safety  Issues.

Students who fear or experienceviolence or bullying are at risk for being chronically absent from school. Thisis especially true among racial and ethnic minority students. A 2015 reportsuggests that nearly 35 percent of black students and more than 28 percent ofHispanic students were involved in a physical fight the previous year, comparedwith about 20 percent of white students.

The same report indicates 20 percentof high school students said they had been bullied in the past year. SocialFactors. Food insecurity or hunger, unstable housing arrangements, unreliabletransportation, job loss within the family, and lack of health insurance alsocontribute to chronic absenteeism. In spite of substantial progress in the areaof health insurance coverage for children, more than 15 percent of all U.

S.children under age 17 remain uninsured, and thus have more limited ability toaccess health care and treatment. Second, we haveTeacher-School Related Factors. Negative perception of the course and theprofessor sometimes leads to students’ absenteeism. When a student isdiscouraged or views the course in a negative way, there would be a lesserpossibility that the student will attend the class regularly. When theprofessor rarely attends the class, the student might get used not going to schoolat the time scheduled for the subject.

But most of the time, when the given grades are not justifiable, the studentwill surely feel bad. Lastly, we havePersonal and Financial Problems.That the student does not wakeup early enough is the most common reason why he/she is absent. Peer influence/camaraderie .Another reason commonly cited is that they can’t concentrate ontheir studies and that they were not able to study their lessons, feeling lazyand playing computer games also keep them away from school. Unusual pursuit ofleisure.

Students whosay their parents asked them to be absent, household chores come second ,nothaving sufficient money to spend for snacks and other small expenses in school,no breakfast/food, and that their parents quarrelled, peer Influence/Camaraderie, mode of transportation.                    Figure 1Conceptual Paradigm