Police and victims of crime are regularly using social-networking websites such as Namespace, as high-tech versions of “wanted” posters. Police agencies have for several years monitored Namespace, Youth, Faceable, Gang and other popular sleets to Dust sexual predators. Police In Franklin, Massachusetts, posted a video on Youth of two men allegedly using a stolen credit card at Home Depot. Their colleagues in nearby Bellingham, Mass. Reported they were after the same men, and matched the faces with Jail-booking photos.
Data mining in the same way deals with information but from a different angle. Law enforcement agencies, with the current emphasis on terrorism, are faced with the daunting task of sifting large amounts of information in order to make informed decisions. Data mining serves as an automated tool that uses advanced techniques, including artificial intelligence “to fully explore and characterize large data sets involving one or more data sources, identifying significant, recognizable patterns, trends, and relationships not easily detected through traditional analytical techniques alone” (Choc 1).
Law enforcement personnel using data mining for the purpose of analysis, can link incidents, crimes or changes in crime trends to other events in making deployment decisions. Equally important is the need to implement measures for sustained crime management. Information Technology in the management of crime incorporates such elements as authentication, electronic monitoring and, data interception and retention. Factors for the process of authentication are generally classified into three classes. They are meeting the user has, something the user knows, and something the user is or does.
Any process that verifies someone or something as being authentic is known as authentication. Kent and Millet define it as “the process of establishing confidence in the truth of some claim” (33). Authentication covers offender tracking, voice recognition and fingerprint analysis. Emphasis will be placed on the inherent factor, something the user is or does. President Bush signed a bill on July 27, 2006 that established a national sex offender registry. It enabled citizens anywhere in the United States to find out if a person is a known sex offender.
Despite the fact the registry provides the identity, address and workplace of the offenders, the police do not always know where they are. For example, though sexual predators may be forbidden to visit certain locations, such as schools or playgrounds, as a condition of their release from prison, the police cannot do anything unless they catch them in the act. Information Technology, in the form of offender tracking, has now given the police a new tool which they can utilize to “monitor the movement of these extremely dangerous individuals” (Snow 140).
Extremely dangerous individuals can now be nabbed by the sound of their voice. The Computer Voice Stress Analyzer (CASSAVA) is a investigative truth verification tool. ” Nine year old Rowan Ford’s killers underwent CASSAVA examinations after their polygraphs examinations were determined to be inconclusive. As a result of the precise results of the CSV’S examinations, both killers were charged with first-degree murder and rape. Fingerprint Analysis uses computer algorithms to determine similarities between a physical print and one stored in a database.
Analysis is executed on multiple levels where algorithms are first compared to the prints to determine the type, and then subsequently to determine additional details until a match is found. The FBI fingerprint system boasts an accuracy rate in excess of 98% (Lichens). With their unique qualities, it is easily understood how fingerprints can be used to manage crime. In addition to authentication, electronic monitoring is another aspect of crime management that warrants exploration. Electronic monitoring includes surveillance systems, Geographical Integration systems Ana array Truculence monitoring evolves.
I nest aspects of electronic monitoring are similar to those covered in crime detection as both crime detection and prevention sometimes employ like techniques. The Oxford Concise English Dictionary defines surveillance as the close observation, especially of a suspected spy or criminal. Under the umbrella of electronic monitoring, such observation would be carried out electronically and is normally done with the use of CATV. Law enforcement finds surveillance useful as it enables them to maintain social control, recognize and monitor threats, and prevent criminal activity.
Alan Michael, Minister of State in England proffered the following on OCW. The advantages of CATV, properly managed, speak for themselves: crime prevention, the deterrent effect of knowing that there is observation, the alerting of police at an early stage to stop dangerous situations escalating, the operational assistance to the police in sizing up a situation, the safer convictions that can be obtained – the savings in court time can be enormous – and, above all, the fact that people’s confidence is renewed, which has led to many town centers being revivalists.
Vulnerable groups in particular feel the advantage. (CTD. In Gold 1) Geographical Information Systems (GIS) likewise assists the police with crime management. As most crime data have a specific location, all types of data, including steered sex offenders, suspects and crime locations can be added to a map. Having identified spatial patterns, law enforcement resources can be effectively deployed for crime analysis and prevention. For example, law enforcement can priorities locations for activities such as drugs or prostitution stings based on where those crimes as most prevalent.
In “Geographic Information Systems and Crime Analysis in Baltimore County, Maryland,” Philip Canter states that GIS can be used as a tool to identify contributing factors to crime, thus allowing police to proactively respond to situations before they become problematic (156). Proactive response can also be had from radio frequency monitoring devices. These monitoring devices impose a curfew on offenders and, monitors whether or not they are home at the required times. The system works through a transmitter worn on the ankle and a receiver connected to the landlines telephone of the offender.
Electronic contact is maintained with the receiver at all times and the authorities are alerted if the offender strays too far. (Karakas). In the same way data access can be detected, it can also be intercepted. Data interception and retention involves snooping, wire tapping and data retention. In the last nine months of 2006, Looms reports the United Kingdom’s (I-J) snooping watchdog revealed that it received 253,000 requests to eavesdrop on an individual’s communications. According to Looms, hundreds of UK public bodies are authorized to intercept communication for the purpose of crime prevention and detection.
Looms quoted the communications commissioner as saying “this highly intrusive investigative tool” has “contributed to a number of striking successes” in combating crime and terrorism as, it played a vital role in the battle against serious crime and terrorism that could not be achieved by any other means. Snooping means to investigate or look around furtively in an attempt to find out something. Another unobtrusive means of obtaining information is that of wiretapping. The U. S. Congress passed the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALLA) in 1994.