According to the U. S. Dept of Justice (2000), approximately 1. 3 million women are physically assaulted by an intimate partner annually in the United States.
Nearly 25% of women were raped and/or physically assaulted or killed by a current or former spouse, cohabiting partner, or dating partner or acquaintance. Each culture has unique factors that determine the services and resources that battered women, children exposed to domestic violence, and abusive partners need.Although literature indicates no significant differences with regard to the nature and severity of Hispanic and non-Hispanic women’s domestic violence experience, Hispanic women (Latina) reported significantly greater trauma symptoms such as depression and lower social and personal self-esteem. In addition, they were less likely to make global attritions for positive events than were non-Hispanic women (2000). There are many studies regarding Hispanic woman and domestic violence, however, little is known about how Intrapersonal constructs (culture and religion) impact their decision making process.The intent of this study is to explore two specific topic areas: the cultural experience of Intimate Partner Violence among Latinas and how the cultural phenomena “marianismo” defined as the traditional idealized gender role impacts their domestic violence experience.
Research Questions/Hypotheses Research Question #1: What is the relationship between marianismo and marital satisfaction among women of Mexican origin? Hypothesis #1: Familismo will be positively correlated with marital satisfaction among women of Mexican origin.It is expected that women who endorse higher levels of familismo will report It is expected that women who endorse higher levels of familismo will report higher levels of marital satisfaction. Conversely, women who endorse lower levels of familismo will report lower levels of marital satisfaction.
This hypothesis is based on the Latino literature suggesting family support and strong family values help increase marital satisfaction and help keep the divorce rate down among the Latino population (Frisbie,1986; Nogales, 1998; Santiago-Rivera et al. , 2002).Research Question #2: What is the relationship between marianismo, perceived machismo, and marital satisfaction among women of Mexican origin? Hypothesis #2: The interaction between corresponding levels of marianismo and perceived machismo (i. e.
, higher marianismo/higher perceived machismo or lower marianismo/lower perceived machismo) will be positively correlated with marital satisfaction, whereas the interaction between dissimilar levels (i. e. , higher marianismo/lower perceived machismo or lower marianismo/higher perceived machismo) will be negatively correlated with marital satisfaction among women of Mexican origin.It is expected that a sense of shared cultural values will contribute to greater marital satisfaction, whereas conflicting cultural values will contribute to lowered marital satisfaction. Specifically, women who report similar or corresponding levels of marianismo and perceived machismo (i. e. , variables are both high or low, indicating a positive correlation) will report higher levels of marital satisfaction.
Conversely, women who report dissimilar levels of marianismo and perceived machismo (i. e. , one variable is high and the other is low, indicating a negative correlation) will report lower levels of marital satisfaction.Satisfaction with shared values, particularly the mutual value placed on traditional gender roles in a relationship by both spouses, has been linked to greater marital satisfaction among married women (Rosen-Grandon et al. , 2004). The purpose of this qualitative method Inquiry is to understand the meaning of Hispanic women’s cultural role attitudes “marianismo” at a Domestic Violence or Homeless shelter.
At this stage in the research, “marianismo” will be tentatively defined as cultural social expectations for Hispanic women.The significance of this inquiry is to advocate for culturally specific services and resources which may assist in improving the outcomes for social work practice with Hispanic women. Research of contributing factors in domestic violence victim responses will help further the education of service providers (professional and non-professional) in cultural diversity and give them a sensitivity to incorporate the cultural aspects when working with victims of different cultures. Inquiry will be made into what are some of the cultural and religious beliefs that the Hispanic women hold and do they serve as positive or negative influences?Questions will explore which Intrapersonal constructs (culture and religion) which contribute to Latina women’s decision making process and examine the correlation between Interpersonal construct phenomena “marianismo” and the Latina’s domestic violence experience. The goals are to answer these research questions which may include but are not limited to: (1) How much do Latina women know about domestic violence? (2) How do Hispanic women describe their domestic violence experience? (3) How do Hispanic women describe their current situation? 4) How do Hispanic women describe “marianismo”? and (5)What are their beliefs, values, and attitudes towards making decisions about unhealthy relationships? Research Hypothesis #1: Intrapersonal Construct phenomena (specifically marianismo) does not impact the Latina’s domestic violence experience.
Alternative Hypothesis: Intrapersonal construct phenomena (specifically marianismo) does impact the Latina’s domestic violence experience. : The interaction between corresponding levels of marianismo and Latina’s domestic violence experience (i. e.
higher marianismo/higher perceived machismo or lower marianismo/lower perceived machismo) will be positively correlated with marital satisfaction, whereas the interaction between dissimilar levels (i. e. , higher marianismo/lower perceived machismo or lower arianismo/higher perceived machismo) will be negatively correlated with marital satisfaction among women of Mexican origin. Definition of Terms and Variables Latina: According to the authors (2005), the term “Latino/Latina” commonly refers to individuals from the Americas originally colonized by Spain. The National Institutes of Health definition of Hispanic/Latino tates: “a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race”.
Most Latino/Latinas are ethnically mixed, with indigenous, European, and African roots. Marianismo: According to the study of the cultural phenomena “marianismo” is defined as the traditional idealized gender role within the Latina culture. Domestic Violence : Domestic violence and emotional abuse are behaviors used by one person in a relationship to control the other. Violence can be criminal and includes physical assault (hitting, pushing, shoving, etc.
, sexual abuse (unwanted or forced sexual activity), and stalking. Intimate partners: Partners may be married or not married; heterosexual, gay, or lesbian; living together, separated or dating. Design (Mixed Method: Concurrent Nested Strategy) A mixed method concurrent nested strategy would be appropriate as this model would allow me to use different methods as opposed to using the predominant method alone and increase the validity of my research.
Mixed method will allow me to collect comprehensive qualitative data on the participant’s experiences; inductive logic will be used to study the topic within its context (Creswell 2007, p. 7). I believe a mixed method will help me to understand more complex relationships among variables and increase the level of understanding of the relevant issues regarding domestic violence with Latina women.
Analysis According to Creswell (2007), the researcher combines the two forms of data to seek convergence among the results. Integration which means that the researcher “mixes” (2007) the data might occur at several stages in the process of research: the data collection, the data analysis, interpretation, or some combination of places. The qualitative data is used to describe an aspect of quantitative study that cannot be quantified.The quantitative data is used to enrich the description of the sample participants. Utilizing a mixed-method will allow me to collect comprehensive data on the participant’s experiences as well as reduce the amount of time spent on data collection.
For the first question, a Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Survey, will be implemented on a small scale which can be designed to obtain specialized information from a population subgroup such as women or young adults. It may also identify needs for additional special surveys on specific topics such as expenditures on health care, women’s empowerment, and education (2009).For the second question, The Latina Values Scale (LVS) is a standardized instrument that measures marianismo. Results indicate the LVS is statistically significant demonstrating its high validity and reliability in capturing the cultural psychological construct of marianismo (2009). According to Creswell (2007), the data would need to be transformed by creating codes and themes so they can be integrated within the analysis phase of the research as value-laden and biases discrepancies is expected to be present and is difficult to resolve.Creswell (2007) suggests the following data analysis and validation procedures for qualitiative methods: Identifying and specifying the type of data for both the qualitative and quantitative method that will be collected during the proposed study; the researcher uses quotes and themes in the words of the participants (Creswell, 2007). Checking the validity and accuracy of the qualitative and quantitative findings and triangulating data sources, member-checking, detailed descriptions are among those mentioned in the Creswell text.
Finally, Creswell (2007) suggests structuring the report following the type of strategy chosen for the proposed study. Assumptions: are made that sustained periods of living in such a cycle may lead to learned helplessness and battered person syndrome. Limitations: Small sample size, personal perceptions, and no control test group. My sample size would be three women from possibly the files of superior court or battered women’ shelter.
Delimitation: include what phenomena occurred in the relationship between the woman and her partner of violence (PV). References Babbie, E. (2007). The practice of social research. 11th ed. ). United Kingdom: Thomson Wadsworth. Creswell, J.
W. (2009). Research Design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications. Creswell, J. W. (2007).
Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications. Melendez, F. A. (2005). The Latina Value Scale revised: A cross-sectional analysis of marianismo in Latino women. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, NYC, New York.
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